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Micro Ch. 3

active site the site on an enzyme to which substrates bind; is specific for each substrate
active transport the transport of substances across a plasma membrane; requires cellular energy
aerobic cellular respiration catabolic process that requires oxygen and releases energy
affinity an attraction or force between particles that causes them to combine
algae large and diverse group of simple organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, containing chlorophyll that is needed for photosynthesis
allosteric site a site that, when activated by a noncompetitive inhibitor, will change the shape of the active site of an enzyme
amphitrichous describing a a microbial cell with a single flagellum at opposite poles
anabolism the synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones. this reaction requires energy
anaerobic cellular respiration catabolic process, part of cellular respiration that does not require oxygen
anticodon trinucleotide sequence of transfer RNA (tRNA) that is complementary to the trinucleotide sequence of messenger RNA
apoenzyme the protein portion of an enzyme
archaea a group of single-celled microorganisms that are similar to bacteria because they are also prokaryotes, but are evolutionarily different
binary fission form of asexual reproduction involving dividing the cell into 2 equal, duplicate cells.
biofilm microorganisms organized into complex communities of different organisms, growing on a surface
catabolism metabolic pathway that breaks down large molecules into smaller units. these reactions release energy
cell organelles a specialized subunit within a cell, with a specific function and usually membrane bound
cellular respiration the process by which the chemical energy of nutrient molecules is released and captured in the form of ATP
central dogma the transcription of DNA to RNA to protein
chemotrophs an organism that uses energy from the breakdown of nutrient molecules
chloroplast cell organisms found in algae and plant cells that are capable of converting sun energy into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis
chromosome In eukaryotic cells, a single DNA molecule that includes proteins called histones. In prokaryotic cells, the DNA is not associated with histones and the chromosome is usually circular
coenzymes nonprotein portions of an enzyme, usually a derivative of a water-soluble vitamin, and often necessary for enzyme activation
cofactors nonprotein portion of an enzyme, usually a metal ion
competition carrier-mediated transport can exhibit competition for binding sites on the carrier molecule when two similarly shaped molecules compete for the same binding site
competitive enzyme inhibition describing a situation in which a substance similar to the substrate is competing for the active site of an enzyme
conjugation the transfer of genetic material during cell-to-cell contact
cytoplasm a dense, gelatinous matrix composed of 70% to 80% water, located within the plasma membrane
cytoskeleton the internal framework of a cell composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. It provides support and movement in eukaryotic cells
cytosol the liquid portion of a cell's cytoplasm
diffusion the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration without the expenditure of cellular energy
electron transport chain the last step in aerobic cellular respiration, which takes place in the cristae of the inner mitochondrial membrane and produces most of the energy in aerobic respiration
endocytosis a transport mechanism used by cells to bring substances into the cell
endoenzymes an enzyme that functions within biological membranes
enzymes a biological catalyst that speeds up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy of a reaction
episome a unit of genetic material composed of a series of genes, such as a plasmid; it is capable of integrating itself into the chromosomal DNA of the organism and can be duplicated with every cell division
exocytosis a process by which large molecules, such as polypeptides, proteins, and others, may be excreted form the cell
exoenzymes secreted by cells into their extracellular environment, where they act to break down large molecules into smaller ones so that they can be taken up into cells
fermentation a process of energy production for cells under anaerobic conditions
fimbriae hairlike bacterial surface projections that are more rigid than flagella
first law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed but only transferred from one form to another
flagella hairlike projections that extend from some unicellular organisms
fluid compartments the compartmentalization of the body's water into divisions, mainly the intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF) compartments
frameshift mutations genetic mutations that involve the deletion or insertion of one or more nitrogen bases
fungi heterotrophic single-celled, multinucleated, or multicellular organisms, including yeasts, molds, and mushrooms
G1 phase the first step in the interphase of the cell cycle. Cells carry out the metabolic activities characteristic of the tissue to which they belong
G2 phase the third step in the interphase of the cell cycle. The cell continues to grow and its metabolic activities prepare for mitosis
gene a unit, located on a DNA molecule, that encodes particular information
genotype the exact genetic makeup of an organism
glycocalyx an extracellular polymeric matrix surrounding the plasma membrane
glycolysis also known as the Embden-meyerhof pathway, glycolysis is the two-stage process involving the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate
gram-negative bacteria cell wall characterized by a thin peptidoglycan layer that is more complex because it has an outer membrane that provides a cover that is anchored to the lipoprotein molecules of the peptidoglycan layer
gram-positive bacteria cell wall characterized by a thick peptidoglycan layer located external to the cell membrane
helicase enzymes that use the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to unwind nucleic acid duplexes
holoenzymes enzyme that is combined with one or more cofactors or enzymes
hydrolases enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis reactions
inclusions various nonliving structures within the cytoplasm of a cell
integral proteins plasma membrane proteins that extend from one side through to the other side of the membrane
inversions in genetics, a macrolesion of the DNA in which the order of bases is switched or inverted
irreversible inhibition condition in which substances compete with the substrate for the for the active site of an enzyme, thus inhibiting enzyme action
isomerases enzymes that rearrange atoms within molecules changing the configuration of the actions
Krebs cycle it is a series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions in aerobic cellular respiration
ligases enzymes that form bonds between individual monomers to form polymers
light-dependent reaction the first stage of photosynthesis; it requires solar energy, which is converted to chemical energy
light-independent reaction the second stage of photosynthesis, called the dark reactions; they take place in the stroma of chloroplasts
lophotrichous describing a bacterial cell with flagella present in tufts at one or both ends of the organism
lyases enzymes that remove functional groups from a substrate without adding water, or that add functional groups to a double bond
macrolesion an injury to the DNA that involves more than one base pair, or several genes
meiosis a special type of division in eukaryotic cells. This type of cell division occurs only in the formation of gametes
microlesion an injury to the DNA that involves only one base pair
mitosis the usual process of cell division in eukaryotes, with the replicated cells containing the same genetic material as the mother cell
monotrichous describing a bacterial cell with a flagellum at one end
motility the ability of an organism to move by itself
M phase phase of the cell cycle where mitosis and cytokinesis occur
mutations changes to the base pair sequence of DNA or RNA, passed on by cell division
noncompetitive inhibition occurs when a substance binds to the allosteric site of an enzyme, which results in a change of the active site, inhibiting enzyme action
nuclear envelope it is a phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the cell nucleus
nucleoid area the area in the cytoplasm of bacteria and archaea where the chromosomal DNA is located
osmosis the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane, from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
oxidoreductases enzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions
passive transport the transport of molecules across plasma membranes without using cellular energy
peptidoglycan a large polymer that is a major component of the bacterial cell wall; also known as murein
peripheral proteins proteins that are partially embedded on one side of the plasma membrane
peritrichous describing a microbial cell with flagella distributed over the general cell surface
phagocytosis ingestion of solids by eukaryotic cells through the process of engulfment
phenotype the observable characteristics or traits of an organism
phosphogluconate pathway it is an alternate catabolic pathway followed by some bacteria
photosynthesis fundamental biochemical process that converts light energy into chemical energy
phototrophs organisms that use sunlight for photosynthesis and release energy during the process
pili bacterial surface projections that are more rigid than flagella
pinocytosis a form of endocytosis by which small particles or liquid are transported into a cell
plant a major division of living organisms generally composed of eukaryotic cells capable of photosynthesis
plasma membrane a phospholipid bilayer surrounding living cells
plasmid a circular nonchromosomal DNA molecule in bacteria
point mutations a mutation in which a single nucleotide base is altered
primer RNA a short strand of RNA initiating DNA synthesis
promoter a unidirectional sequence on one strand of DNA that tells the RNA polymerase where to start transcription and in which direction to continue synthesis
receptor-mediated endocytosis a transport process in which a substance binds to a receptor on the plasma membrane, which invaginates, surrounding the substance and pinching off inside the cell
reversions a change in a point mutation that restores the original phenotype
saturated (1) in organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon chain that has the maximum possible number of hydrogens bonded to it; (2) a solution that contains as much dissolved solute as possible under the given conditions
specific protein carrier in carrier-mediated transport, these are protein molecules with binding sites for a particular molecule that will be transported across the plasma membrane
S phase phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is replicated in preparation for cell division
stroma the matrix of a chloroplast. The site of the dark reactions of photosynthesis
taxis an innate behavioral response to a directional stimulus
terminator sequence a nucleotide sequence that marks the end of a gene to stop transcription
thylakoid membranes membrane covering of the thylakoid, where the light reactions of photosynthesis take place
transduction in virology, a method of gene transfer in which genes are transported into a bacterial cell by a bacteriophage
transferases an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another
transformation a method of gene transfer in which a piece of free DNA is taken into a bacterial cell and integrated into its genome
transposons sequences of DNA that can around to different positions in the genome
Created by: elmore00



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