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Micro Ch. 2

TermDefinition
acids substances that release hydrogen ions (H+)
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a chemical compound (nucleotide) that provides energy for the cell
anabolism the synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones. this reaction requires energy
anions negatively charged ions; they move toward the positive pole or anode of an electric field
atomic nucleus the center of the atom; contains protons and neutrons
atomic number equals the number of protons in an atomic nucleus
atomic weight equals the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
atoms a unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element
bases a chemical compound that dissociates in water and releases hydroxyl ions
catabolism metabolic pathway that breaks down large molecules into smaller units. these reactions release energy
cations an ion with a positive charge
chemical bond the result of forces of attraction that hold together atoms in an element or compound, due to the interaction of electrons
chemical compounds a chemical substance that consists of two or more different elements bonded together
chemical formula the shorthand expression for a chemical compound
cholesterol a sterol, a combination of a steroid and an alcohol
covalent bonds a form of chemical bonding that results from a sharing of electrons between 2 atoms of the same element or between atoms of different elements
dehydration synthesis the formation of a larger compound (polymer) from smaller ones (monomers); also called condensation
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains the genetic information of a cell; it is a nucleic acid with a double-helix structure containing the sugar deoxyribose and 10 bases per turn
disaccharides compounds formed when 2 monosaccharides combine with the loss of a water molecule
electrolyte a substance that dissociates into free ions when dissolved in a solvent such as water
electrons negatively charged particles orbiting in the shells of atoms
elements a type of atom that can be distinguished by its atomic number
endergonic a chemical reaction that requires energy
hydrogen bonds a weak chemical bond between molecules that always involves a hydrogen atom with a slight positive charge and an oxygen or nitrogen atom with a slightly negative charge
hydrolysis or decomposition the breaking down of large molecules (polymers) into unit molecules (monomers) in the presence of water
hydrophilic ("water-loving")/ water-soluble compounds
hydrophobic molecules held together by nonpolar covalent bonds; they are water repellent and insoluble in water
hypertonic a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than solvent
hypotonic a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than solvent
ionic bonds formed when one or more electrons from one atom are transferred to another
ions an atom or molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons, resulting in a positive or negative electrical charge
isotonic solutions with the same amount of solute and solvent
isotopes form of an atom of an element with the same number of protons but with a different number of neutrons
matter anything with volume and mass and that takes up space
molecules two or more atoms linked together by chemical bonds
monosaccharides simple sugars that contain 3 to 7 carbon atoms and an aldehyde sugar or a ketone sugar
neutrons particle in the atomic nucleus that is without electrical charge
nonpolar without electrical charge
oxidation occurs when an atom or molecule loses one or more electrons
phospholipids polar lipids and the main component of plasma membranes
pH scale scale based on the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution and is used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
polar in chemistry, a bond that has an uneven distribution of charge due to unequal distribution of shared electrons
polysaccharides complex carbohydrates such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose
prostaglandins hormone-like substances derived from arachidonic acid. they participate in a wide range of body functions, including contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, dilation and constriction of blood vessels, and modulation of inflammation
protons positively charged particles in the atomic nucleus
radioactivity the spontaneous emission of energy and/or particles from an unstable atom
redox a reduction-oxidation reaction
reduction the gaining of an electron by an atom or molecule
ribonucleic acid (RNA) nucleic acid that is transcribed from DNA and directs/participates in protein synthesis
shells in atoms, the discrete energy regions occupied by the electrons orbiting around the nucleus
solutes dissolved particles in a solution
solution a homogeneous mixture of solvent and solutes that will not separate out on standing
solvent a liquid capable of dissolving a substance
steroids a lipid with a four-ring structure
synthesis chemical reaction in which reactants bond together to form a new molecule
triglycerides lipids composed of fatty acids and glycerol; they are neutral fats
valence electrons the electrons in the outermost shell of an atom that can be gained or lost in a chemical reaction
van der Waals forces weak attractions between molecules that have a small degree of polarity
Created by: elmore00