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Lesson 3 [Argument Structure]

What is a characterization quest? Just looking at the argument and trying to figure out something about it
How do you get better at seeing argument structure? Read for Propositions DON'T read for sentences
What is a proposition? Any kind of assertion
What structure do all arguments have? [P] Premise [P] Premise (assumption) ------------------- *conclusion At least 1 premise and a conclusion
What is a conclusion? Propositions supported by premises
Premise key words? since because for as after all moreover in addition given that
Conclusion key words? therefore thus hence so as a result consequently It follows that it is clear that
What are assumptions? claims not explicitly stated must be true for conclusion to be inferred from the premises
Steps to breaking down arguments? locate [underline] the conclusion find the relevant premises -What conclusion o they support ID any assumptions in the argument
How does a conclusion become necessarily true? When both premises are true Conclusion can be "logically inferred" from the conjunction of two premises
What does it mean when an argument is "valid"? Conclusion of an argument can be logically inferred from its premises
Game plan for figuring out "main pt." of a characterization quest.? **Look for conclusion indicators -Conclusion/premise key words -Author's attitude shift [but, however, etc. ] +Any presence of author’s attitude can be indicative of a conclusion [even if it’s not a shift] -prescriptive statement [should, ought, etc] -proposed explanation for phenomenon **Answer check -Is it in the stimulus?[yes] -is it supported by something else in the stimulus?[yes] -does it support something else in the stimulus?[no]
Example prompts for "main pt." quests.? "Which one of the following is the [main pt.] of the argument?" "Which one of the following most accurately expresses the [conclusion] of the argument?"
How do role quests. work? **they pt. you to part of stimulus -we have to figure out what role it plays
Role quest. game plan? 1. what are they telling you to ID in stimulus? --bracket that statement 2. underline conclusion and find relevant premises 3. ID role of bracketed statement --premise? --conclusion? --subsidiary conclusion? --something else? [background info/objection to position/claim refuted by argument] 4. pick answer choice that IDs the role w/out mischaracterizing the argument
Example prompts for [role] quests.? "...most accurately describes the [role] played in the..." "...[figures] in the argument in which of the following ways?"
[describe] quest. game plan? 1. underline conclusion and find relevant premises 2. if prevalent argument type[the BIG LIST] --find answer choice that describes it w/out micharacterizing argument 3. if not prevalent argument type --paraphrase how premise(s) support conclusion and find answer choice that describes it w/out mischaracterizing argument
How to tell if a prompt is for a Describe quest? **Ask if they are saying [how?]
What is an argument? Set of propositions 1 or more propositions intended to provide support for another proposition
What are premises? Propositions on which an argument is based Stated as facts Intended to support a conclusions
What are the prevalent forms of argumentation that [Describe] questions use [BIG LIST]? **Rejecting Alternatives --req. premise that says I have to do one of 2 things --premises that reject or eliminate some of your choices **Applying a General Principle --rule/law --premise that says the rule is happening now so we have to follow what the rule says now **Appealing to an Authority --expert on subject **Using a Counterexample --has to be claim that they're going against in the argument **Making an Apology --req premise that 2 things have something in common --premises that something is true about 1 of 2 things **Using a Line of Reasoning to Draw an Absurd Conclusion (generally 2nd perspective) **Proposing an Alternative Cause for an Observed Effect **Undermining a Premise or Conclusion (generally 2nd Perspective) **Offering New Evidence/ Challenging an Assumption (generally 2nd perspective) --points to assumption **Explaining a Phenomenon
Created by: KyronCox