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# Logic

### Logic Exam 2

Question | Answer |
---|---|

A being given as true | E is False, I is true, O is False |

E being given as true | A is False, I is false, O is true |

I being given as true | E is false, A and O Undetermined |

O being given as true | A is false; E and I are undetermined |

A being given as false | O is true; E and I are undetermined |

E being given as false | I is true; A and O are undetermined |

I being given as false | A is false; E is true; O is true. |

O being given as false | A is true; E is false; I is true. |

Sq opposition: A to E | Contraries |

Sq opposition: A to O | Contradictories |

Sq opposition: I to E | Contradictories |

Sq opposition: I to O | Subcontraries |

Converse | Change Subject and Predicate |

Obversion | (All) quality P to NonP; All pure G. >No B are non-G. |

Contraposition | Switch position and replace with complement. A and O if limited, but no longer works with E. |

All A are B. Some A are B. | Will Show Invalid with diagram |

No A are B. Some A are Not B. | Will show Invalid with diagram. |

How many circles draw syllagism? | three |

Represent first? | Major Premise |

Represent second? | Minor Premise |

Represent third? | Don't draw in conclusion. |

x in area | at least 1 in area |

x on a line | don't know, might be in bothor in just one. |

curly cues? | nothing. not applicable. |

Four Terms | Equivication, Ambiguity, Amphiboly; All A's are B's. All B's are C. Therefore, As are Ds. Look different but different not okay. |

Undistributed Middle | middle term not distributed in either premise. All A's are B's. All Cs are Bs. Therefore, All As are Cs. |

Distribution: A | All (A) are B |

Distribution: E | No (A) are (B) |

Distribution: I | Some A are B |

Distribution: O | Some A are not (B) |

Illicit Major | Premises make no assertion about all mammals, but conclude no cats are mammals. All B's are C's. No A are B. Therefore, No As are Cs. |

Illicit Minor | Minor term undistributed; assertion about all opponents of abortion but the premises make no assertion; they say nothing about all abortion opponents.All Cs are Bs. All Bs are As. Therefore, all As are Cs. |

Exclusive premise | No, No, therefore No. Avoid two negative premises. |

Can we have two Os? | No |

Can we have two Es? | No |

Affirmative Concl from Neg Premise | All As are Bs. No Cs are Bs. Therefore All As are Cs. If either premise is neg. then the conclusion must be neg. |

Valid categorical syllogism with all Is or Os | No matter will get undistributed middle or illcit major |

E and I, but what if limited? | A if limited by Some. Conversion does not exist for Boolean. |

A and O-Sometimes what? | Sometimes E if limited, no longer works with E. |

Relational sides of the square are undone, but... | diagonal contradictory relations remain in force. |

First Figure | M-P, S-M |

Second Figure | P-M, S-M |

Third Figure | M-P, M-S |

Fourth Figure | P-M, M-S |

Existential Fallacy | A and E>Can't get particular IO All As are Bs All Bs are Cs. Th. Some As are Cs. From two universal premises, no particular conclusion may be drawn. |