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Implication Family identification of a statement that is implied by the truth of the statements in the stimulus (i.e. must be true, is most strongly supported by, must be false, could be true EXCEPT) *each statement in stimulus should be treated as though it is true*
Characterization Family require characterization of the stimulus or some part of it (i.e. main point, method of argumentation, flaw, role of a particular claim, most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that, argument proceeds by) *some form of description of the stimulus*
Operation Family requires performance of an operation on the stimulus (strengthen, weaken, prove, explain) *each answer choice should be treated as though it were true*
Premise Supports a conclusion
Conclusions Propositions supported by premises
Premises Key Words Since, Because, For, As, After all, Moreover, In addition, Given that
Conclusions Key Words Therefore, Thus, Hence, So, As a result, Consequently, It follows that, It is clear that
Validity of Argument If premises, even though implausible, are true, then argument is valid
Sufficient Condition Terms enough, guarantees, if, when, whenever, all, any, each, every
Necessary Condition Terms required, must be true, then, only, only if, only when, needs, requires, must
Only If creates necessary condition on its own; phrase followed by necessary condition
Only Must find the referent of this word in order to locate the necessary condition
If and only if means that both conditions are both necessary and sufficient
Unless, Until, Without, Except Negate this term to "if not"; terms following these words are the sufficient condition and the others are the necessary condition
"No" Statement No A's are B's implies that ALL A's are not B's *No men wear perfume.-->Every man does not wear perfume*
Created by: EssBee1