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Micro Ch. 1

TermDefinition
abiogenesis the development of living organisms from nonliving matter
airborne diseases refers to the spread of pathogens by droplet nuclei
algae large and diverse group of simple organisms containing chlorophyll
animalcules microscopic organisms "small animals"
archaea group of single-celled microorganisms that are similar to bacteria (also are prokaryotes)
aseptic free of microorganisms; using methods to protect against pathogenic microorganisms
bacteria a large group of unicellular, prokaryotic organisms
binomial consisting of or relating to 2 names or terms
biofilms microorganisms organized into complex communities of different organisms, growing on a surface
bioremediation any process that uses microorganisms or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition
classification the assignment of organisms into taxa on the basis of similarities
commensalism a term used to describe a symbolic relationship in which one of the organisms benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped
compound microscope a form of light microscope with ocular and objective lenses
dissection microscopes a low-power microscope designed for observing larger objects such as insects, worms, plants, or any objects that may have to be dissected for further observation
domains the highest taxonomic rank of an organism
electron microscope uses a beam of electrons rather than light as the source of energy to visualize specimens
endospores a dormant, tough, nonreproductive structure that some bacteria can produce in response to unfavorable environmental conditions
eukaryotic an organism whose cells contain a DNA-containing nucleus and membrane-bound cell oraganelles
foodborne diseases involves pathogens in or on foods that are incompletely cooked, poorly processed under unsanitary conditions, not refrigerated, or poorly refrigerated
fungi heterotrophic single-celled, multinucleated, or multi-cellular organisms, including yeasts, molds, and mushrooms
genera the usual major subdivision of a family or subfamily in the classification of organisms, usually consisting of more than 1 species
genus a group of species closely related in structure and evolutionary origin; the level of grouping falls between family and species
identification in taxonomy, the process of specifying, identifying, and recording the traits of organisms
immunology the study of the genetic, biological, chemical, physical characteristics of the immune system
koch's postulates criteria to establish the causative agent of a specific disease
light microscopes microscope that uses the visible light spectrum to visualize a specimen
mutualism a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit
nomenclature deals with the rules for naming organisms
normal flora microorganisms that are usually found at given anatomic sites in a healthy human body without causing infection or disease
parasitism a symbiotic relationship wherein one organism benefits and the other is harmed
pasteurization the process of heating foods at a temperature and time combination intended to destroy harmful bacteria without changing the composition,flavor, or nutrient value of the food
pathogenic the ability to cause disease
phylum the taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class
phylogeny deals with the evolutionary relationship between organisms
prions infectious proteinaceous particles that are neither cellular organisms nor viruses
prokaryotes an organism, typically unicellular, that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. includes bacteria and archaea
protozoans unicellular, eukaryotic, usually chemoheterotrophic organisms that live in environments with an ample water supply
species a biological taxonomic grouping below genus in which all organisms bear a close resemblance to each other in essential features and sexually produce fertile progeny
stereomicroscopes low-power microscopes designed for observing larger objects such as insects, worms, plants, or any objects that may need to be dissected for further observation
sterilization the destruction/removal of all microorganisms and their spores
stromatolites masses of cells or microbial mats made up of fossilized photosynthetic prokaryotes
synergism the effect produced in a relationship in which 2 chemicals or organisms work together to produce an effect greater than could have been achieved individually
taxa or taxon a group of related organisms
taxonomy the practice and science of classification of living things
viroids a single-stranded RNA molecule, lacking a capsid, that is an infectious agent in plants
waterborne diseases disease that is spread or sustained by water
Created by: elmore00