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Gault BIOL 251 Ch 27

Chapter 27: Microbial Ecology adn Microbiomes

TermDefinition
Environmental microbiology The study of microorganisms as they occur in their natural habitats
Abyssal zone Deep-ocean trenches
Agroterrorism The use of microbes or their toxins to destroy the food supply
Ammonification Process in which amino groups released by deamination of amino acids are converted to ammonia
Anammox Component of the nitrogen cycle in which ammonium is oxidized to nitrogen gas using nitrite as an electron acceptor
Benthic zone Encompasses the deepest water and bottom sediments
Biodiversity The number of species living within a given ecosystem
Biogeochemical cycles Processes by which organisms convert elements from one form to another
Biomass The mass of all organisms in an ecosystem.
Biomining Process in which microbes oxidize metals so that they more readily dissolve in water
Bioremediation The use of microorganisms to clean up toxic, hazardous, or recalcitrant compounds and degrade them to harmless forms
Biosphere The region of Earth inhabited by all organisms
Bioterrorism The use of microbes or their toxins as biological weapons
Carbon cycle Involves the cycling of carbon in the form of organic molecules
Denitrification A process in which microorganisms oxidize nitrate to gaseous nitrogen by anaerobic respiration
Ecosystems All of the organisms living in a particular habitat and the relationship between the two
Eutrophication The overgrowth of microorganisms in waterways resulting from runoff of phosphorus and nitrogen from agricultural fertilizers
Hydrothermal vents Provide super-heated, nutrient-rich water to support chemoautotrophic growth
Limnetic zone At the surface of the water away from the shore
Littoral zone Area along the shoreline
Microbial ecology The study of the interrelationships among microorganisms and the environment
Nitrification A two-step process in which autotrophic bacteria oxidize ammonium ion to nitrate
Nitrogen cycle Microbes cycle nitrogen atoms from dead organic materials and wastes to soluble forms for use by other organisms
Phosphorus cycle The movement of phosphorus from insoluble to soluble forms for use by organisms
Populations include all the members of a single species
Profundal zone Area below the surface zone
Sulfur cycle Microorganisms decompose dead organisms, releasing amino acids, which can be converted to hydrogen sulfide
Created by: rgault