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Gault BIOL 251 CH 3

Chapter 3; Cell Structure and Function

TermDefinition
Biofilms Slimy masses of bacteria adhering to a surface
Capsule A glycocalyx firmly attached to a cell surface
Cell wall Bacterial structure that provides structure, shape, and protection from osmotic forces
Chemotaxis Movement of a cell toward or away from stimuli such as chemicals
Cilia Structurally similar to eukaryotic flagella but are much shorter and more numerous
Cytoskeleton An internal scaffolding of fibers that play a role in forming a cell’s basic shape
Diffusion The movement of chemicals down their concentration gradient
Endoflagella Special flagella of some spirochetes that spiral tightly around the cell instead of protruding into the environment
Endosymbiotic theory Proposal to explain why mitochondria and chloroplasts have 70S ribosomes, circular DNA, and two membranes
Exocytosis Used by some cells to export material.
Facilitated diffusion Proteins act as channels or carriers to allow certain molecules that cannot cross the lipid layer to diffuse into or out of the cell along their electrochemical gradient
Short, sticky, proteinaceous extensions of some bacteria that help cells adhere to one another and to substances in the environment
Long extensions beyond the cell surface and glycocalyx that propel a cell through its environment
Fluid mosaic model Descriptive of the current understanding of the membrane structure.
Glycocalyx A gelatinous, sticky substance that surrounds the outside of some cells
Gram-negative Bacterial cells have only a thin layer of peptidoglycan
Gram-positive Bacterial that cells have thick layers of peptidoglycan
Hypertonic Solutions have a higher concentration of solutes
Hypotonic Solutions have a lower concentration of solutes
Isotonic Solutions having the same concentration of solutes
Osmosis Osmosis
Peptidoglycan A complex polysaccharide composed of two alternating sugars called NAG and N-acetylmuramic and NAM
Peritrichous flagella Flagella covering the entire surface of the cell
Phagocytosis When solids are brought into a cell
Pilus A special type of fimbria
Pinocytosis The internalization of liquids
Ribosome Site of protein synthesis in cells
Slime layer A glycocalyx that is loosely attached to a cell and is water soluble
Created by: rgault