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Presentation The part of the fetus that enters the pelvic inlet first and leads through the birth canal during labor. The three main presentations are cephalic presentation, breech presentation, and shoulder presentation.
Engagement Term used to indicate that the largest transverse diameter of the presenting part (usually the biparietal diameter) has passed through the maternal pelvic brim or inlet into the tru pelvis and usually corresponds to 0 .
Lightening Sensation of decreased abdominal distention produced by uterine descent into the pelvic cavity as the fetal presenting part settles into the pelvis. It usually occurs 2 weeks before the onset of labor in nulliparas.
Quickening Maternal perception of fetal movement (feeling life) usually occurs between weeks 16 and 20 of gestation but may be felt earlier by multiparous women.
Station Relationship of the presenting fetal part to an imaginary line drawn between the ischial spines of the pelvis. It is a measure of the degree of decent of the presenting part of the fetus through the birth canal.
Effacement The shortening and thinning of the cervix during the first stage of labor. Degree of effacement is expressed in percentages for 0% to 100%.
Dilation The enlargement of widening of the cervical opening and the cervical canal that occurs once labor has begun. The diameter of the cervix increases from closed to 10 cm to allow birth of the term fetus.
Crowning Stage of birth when the top of the fetal head can be seen at the vaginal orifice as the widest part of the head distends the vulva.
Frequency of Contractions Time (measured in minutes) from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next.
Duration of Contractions Time (measured in seconds) from the beginning to the end of a contraction.
Intensity of Contractions Strength of a contraction at its peak.
Episiotomy Surgical incision of the perineum at the end of the second stage of labor to enlarge the vaginal outlet, facilitate birth, and avoid laceration of the perineum.
Induction of Labor Chemical or mechanical initiation of uterine contractions before their spontaneous onset for the purpose of bringing about birth.
Augmentation of Labor Stimulation of ineffective uterine contractions after labor has stared spontaneously but is not progressing satisfactorily.
EDC/EDD/EDB Approximate date of birth. Usually determined by calculation using Naegele's rule; "due date"
SGA/IUGR Fetal undergrowth of any cause, such as deficient nutrient supply or intrauterine infection, or associated with congenital malformation; birth wight below population 10th percentile corrected for gestational age.
LGA/Macrosomia Large for gestational age. Birth weight more than 4000 to 4500g or greater than the 90th percentile.
Abortion Termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable and capable of extrauterine existence, usually less than 20 weeks gestation (or when the fetus weighs less than 500g); miscarriage.
Preterm Labor Regular contractions along with a change in cervical effacement of dilation of both, or presentation with regular uterine contractions and cervical dilation of at least 2cm before 37 0/7 weeks gestation.
Postterm Labor Pregnancy that extends past 42 completed weeks of gestation (294 days or more from the first day of the last menstrual period). Sometimes also referred to as the postdates or prolonged pregnancy.
Gravida A women who is pregnant
Primigravida A women who is pregnant for the first time.
Multigravida A women who has had two or more pregnancies.
Nullipara A women who has not completed a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks of gestation.
Primipara A women who has completed one pregnancy with a fetus or fetuses who have reached at least 20 weeks of gestation.
Multipara A women who has completed two or more pregnancies to 20 weeks of gestation or more.
Stillbirth The birth of a baby after 20 weeks of gestation and 1 day weighing 350g (depending on the state code) that does not show nay signs of life.
VBAC/TOLAC Giving birth vaginally after having had a previous cesarean birth.
Amniotomy Artificial rupture of the membranes (AROM), using a plastic amnihook or a surgical clamp.
AROM Artificial rupture of the membranes.
PROM/PPROM Preterm premature rupture of membranes that occurs before 37 0/7 weeks of gestation .
NST: Non-Stress Test Evaluation of fetal response (fetal heart rate) to fetal movement, uterine contractions, or stimulation.
OCT/CST Contraction Stress Test. Test to stimulate uterine contractions for the purpose of assessing fetal response to stress; it identifies a fetus that is stable at rest but shows evidence of compromise after stress. AKA Ocytocin Challenge Test
IUPC Intrauterine pressure catheter. Catheter inserted into the uterine cavity to assess uterine activity and pressure by electronic means.
Leopold's Maneuver
Viability the capacity to live outside the uterus; infants born at 22 to 25 weeks of gestation are considered to be on the threshold of viability.
En Utero
D & C (dilation & curettage) Surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated if necessary and a curette is inserted to scrape the uterine walls and remove uterine content. Uterine contents may also be removed by suction curettage.
Doula A specially trained, experienced female labor attendant. A doula is a professional or lay labour-support person who is present during labor to focus on the laboring women and provide physical and emotional support.
Effleurage Light stroking, usually of the abdomen, in rhythm with breathing during contractions.
Skin to Skin
Lochia Uterine/vaginal discharge after childbirth (during puerperium) consisting of blood, tissue, and mucus.
Rubra Red, distinctly blood-tinged vaginal flow that follows birth and lasts 2 to 4 days; consists mainly of blood and decidual and trophoblastic debris.
Serosa Serous, pinkish brown, watery vaginal discharge that follow lochia rubra until about the tenth day after birth; consists of old blood, serum, leukocytes, and tissue debris.
Alba Thin, yellowish to white, vaginal discharge that follows lochia serosa on about the tenth day after birth and that may last from 2 to 6 weeks postpartum.
Puerperium The interval between the birth of the newborn and the return of the reproductive organs to their normal non pregnant state; 4th trimester. Usually takes about 3 to 6 weeks.
Engrossment A parents absorption, preoccupation, and interest in his or her infant; term typically used to describe the father's intense involvement with his newborn.
Periodic breathing
Brown adipose tissue
Jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia)
Mongolian spots
Cleft Palate
Foramen Ovale
Ductus Arteriosus
Ductus Venosus
Kernicterus Bilirubin encephalopathy involving the deposit of unconjugated bilirubin in brain cells, resulting in death or impaired intellectual, perceptive, or motor function and adaptive behavior.
Puerperium The interval between the birth of the newborn and the return of the reproductive organs to their normal nonpregnant state; also called the fourth trimester of pregnancy or the postpartum period . Usually last about 3 to 6 weeks.
Created by: KimeleS