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Gault BIOL 251 CH 5

Chapter 5: Metabolism

Activation energy The amount of energy needed to trigger a chemical reaction
Active site Functional site of an enzyme
Aerobic respiration Type of cellular respiration requiring oxygen atoms as final electron acceptors
Allosteric site A binding site other than the active site of an enzyme
Amphibolic reactions A reversible metabolic reaction
Anaerobic respiration Type of cellular respiration not requiring oxygen atoms as final electron acceptors
Anabolic reaction Synthesis of macromolecules, requires energy
Apoenzyme The protein portion of protein enzymes that is inactive unless bound to one or more cofactors
ATP synthase Enzyme that phosphorylates ATP in oxidative phosphorylation
Catabolism All the decomposition reactions in an organism taken together
Cellular respiration Metabolic process that involves the complete oxidation of substrate molecules and production of ATP via a series of redox reactions
Chemiosmosis Use of ion gradients to generate ATP
Coenzyme Organic cofactor
Cofactor Inorganic ions or organic molecules that are essential for enzyme activity
Competitive inhibitor Inhibitory substances that blocks enzyme activity by blocking active sites
Electron transport chain Series of redox reactions that pass electrons from one membrane-bound carrier to another and then to a final electron acceptor
Energy Capacity to do work
Entner-Doudoroff Pathway Series of reactions that catabolize glucose to pyruvic acid using different enzymes from those used in either glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway
Enzyme An organic catalyst
Feedback inhibition Method of controlling the action of enzymes in which the end product of a series of reactions inhibits an enzyme in an earlier part of the pathway
Fermentation The partial oxidation of sugar to release energy with organic molecules as the terminal electron acceptors
Holoenzyme The combination of an apoenzyme and its cofactors
Krebs cycle A series of eight enzymatically catalyzed reactions that that transfer stored energy from acetly-CoA to coenzymes NAD+ andd FAD
Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions, both anabolic and catabolic, within an organism
Noncompetitive inhibitor Inhibitory substances that blocks enzyme activity by binding to an allosteric site on the enzyme other than the active site
Pentose phosphate pathway Enzymatic formation of phosphorylated pentose sugars from glucose-6-phosphate
Proton gradient Electrochemical gradient of hydrogen ions across a membrane
Ribozyme RNA molecule functioning as an enzyme
Substrate The molecule upon which an enzyme acts
Substrate-level phosphorylation The transfer of phosphate to ADP from another phosphorylated organic molecule
Created by: rgault