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Anat and Phys U1

Respiratory System Keeps body supplied with Oxygen; lungs, nasal, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx
Nervous system Body’s control system; brain, spinal cord; nerves
Skeletal system Supports the body; bones, cartilage; ligaments
Urinary system Removes waste from blood; kidneys, urinary bladder
Reproductive system Produces offspring; female: uterus, vagina, Fallopian tube, ovaries; male: penis, testes, seminal vesicles
Immune/lymphatic system defense against diseases/fluid balance and cleanses blood; white blood cells/lymph nodes, lymph vessels
Muscular system Contract/shortens; allows for movement; muscles
Integumentary system External covering of the body, regulates body temperature; skin, hair, nails
Endocrine system Secretes hormones; controls body activities; thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries, testes
Digestive system Digest foods in absorbs nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water; stomach, small and large intestines, esophagus
Cardiovascular system Deliver substances and picks up waste; heart and blood vessels
Anatomy To cut; refers to the structure. Dissection, autopsy, MRI, X-Ray, Body Parts
Physiology To study nature/function; heartbeats, acidity, gas exchange
Levels of Organization Atoms-Molecules-Cells-Tissues-Organs-Organ Systems-Organisms
Protection, Support, Movement System Classification Skeletal, muscular, integumentary
Regulation and integration system classification Nervous, endocrine
Transport system classification Cardiovascular, urinary, lymphatic, sort of respiratory
Absorption and excretion system classification Respiratory, digestion, urinary
Reproduction, growth and development system classification Reproductive
M2R2D2 Maintain, Movement, Respond, Reproduce, Defend, Digest
Stimulus The ability to adapt or change in the environment
Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions
Locomotion Ability to move fluid from one place to another
Survival Needs Pressure (needed for fluid flow, gas exchange, and to breath), Temperature (specific temperature window for chemical reactions to take place), Oxygen (needed for chemical reactions), Water (fluid medium for occurrence of chemical reactions), Nutrients
Homeostasis Drive to maintain internal environment; temperature, osmolarity, pH levels
Components of homeostasis Receptor (response to stimulus), control center (monitors everything), effector (corrects imbalance)
Negative feedback loop Corrects imbalance by doing the opposite; blood pressure, glucose level, electrolyte level, etc.
Positive feedback Response enhances initial stimulus; blood clotting, childbirth, breast-feeding
Dorsal cavities Protects the nervous system
Ventral cavities Protects internal organs (viscera)
Cranial cavity Part of dorsal cavity; houses the brain; protected by the skull
Vertebral cavity Part of dorsal cavity; houses the spinal cord; protected by the vertebrae
Thoracic cavity Part of the ventral cavity; cavities are superior to diaphragm; rib cage protects it
Left and right pleural (part of thoracic) Contains lungs
Mediastinum (part of thoracic) Central region; contains trachea, esophagus, thymus, and pericardial
Pericardial (part of thoracic) Contains heart
Abdominal cavity Part of ventral cavity; contains the liver, gallbladder, stomach, small and large intestines, spleen
Pelvic cavity Part of ventral cavity; contains reproductive organs, bladder, rectum, appendix
Retroperitoneal The region between dorsal and ventral cavities; pancreas, kidney, adrenals are located here
Synovial body cavity Found around the joints
MOONS (Other Body Cavities) Middle Ear (Ear), Orbital (eyes), Oral (Mouth), Nasal (Nose), Synovial (Joints),
Meninges Dorsal membrane body cavity; protects the Central Nervous System
Serosa/Serous Lines organs closed to outside; double layered; made up of visceral (directly line organs) and parietal (lines cavity wall)
Mucosa/Mucous Located in body tracks; lines areas open to outside ( digestive, urinary, respiratory, reproductive tracts )
Systematic Membranes Located throughout the body
Cutaneous Skin
Anterior In front of
Posterior Behind
Proximal (only for limbs) Closer to the middle of the body
Distal (only for limbs) Further from the middle of the body
Superior Above
Inferior Below
Lateral Side to/by side
Medial In the middle of the body
Contralateral Opposite Sides
Ipsilateral Same Sides
Superficial Shallow, surface level cut
Deep Cut that goes below surface
Sagittal Left and right parts
Mid sagittal Equal left and right parts
Parasagittal Uneven left and right parts
Frontal/Coronal Front and back
Transversal Horizontal; top and bottom
Umbilicus Center of the regional graph
Hypochondriac Left/Right Upper part of the regional graph
Hypogastric Lower center of the regional graph
Epigastric Upper center of the regional graph
Ileum/iliac Left/right lower part of the regional graph
Created by: lwf
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