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GAult BIOL251 Ch 2

Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Microbiology

TermDefinition
Acid Compound that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions
Adenine Nitrogenous base that forms a double hydrogen bond to uracil
Adenosine triphosphate The primary short-term energy molecule in cells
Amino acid A monomer of peptides
Anabolism All the synthesis reactions in an organism taken together
Anion A negatively charged ion
Atom The smallest chemical unit of matter
Atomic Mass The sum of the masses of the protons. neutrons, and electrons in an atom
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Base Molecule that binds with hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
Buffer A substance that prevents drastic changes in pH
Carbohydrates Organic molecule consisting of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Catabolism All the decomposition reactions in an organism taken together
Cation A positively charged ion
Chemical bond An interaction between atoms in which electrons are either shared or transferred in such a way as to fill their valence shells
Chemical reaction The making or breaking of a chemical bond
Compound A molecule containing atoms of more than one element
Cytosine A nucleotide that forms three hydrogen bonds with guanine
Decomposition reactions A chemical reaction in which the bonds of a larger molecule are broken to form smaller ions, atoms, and molecules
Dehydration reaction A type of synthesis reaction in which two smaller molecules are joined together by a covalent bond , and a molecule of water is formed
Denaturation Process by which a proteins three-dimensional structure is altered, eliminating function
Disaccharide Carbohydrate consisting of two monosaccharide molecules
Electrolytes Any hydrated cation or anion; can conduct electricity through a solution
Electron A negatively charged subatomic particle
Electronegativity The attraction of an atom for electrons
Element Matter that is composed of a single type of atom
Endothermic reaction Any chemical reaction that requires energy
Exchange reactions Type of chemical reaction in which atoms are moved from one molecule to another by means of breaking and forming of covalent bonds
Exothermic Any chemical reaction that releases energy
Fats Compounds composed of three fatty acid molecules linked to a molecule of glycerol
Functional group An arrangement of atoms common to all members of a class of organic molecules
Guanine Forms three hydrogen bonds with cytosine
Hydrogen bond The electrical attraction between a partially charged hydrogen atom and a negative charge on another molecule
Hydrolysis A decomposition reaction in which a covalent bond is broken the ionic components of water are added to the products
Hydrophilic Attracted to water
Hydrophobic Insoluble in water
Inorganic chemicals Molecules lacking carbon
Ionic bond A type of bond formed from the attraction of opposite electrical charges when electrons are not shared
Isotope Atoms of a given element that differ only in the number of neutrons they contain.
Lipid Any of a diverse group of macromolecules not composed of monomers and insoluble in water
Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass
Metabolism The sum of all chemical reaction, both anabolic and catabolic, within an organism
Molecule Two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Monomer A subunit of a macromolecule
Monosaccharide A monomer of a carbohydrate
Neutron An uncharged subatomic particle
Nonpolar covalent bond A type of chemical bond in which there is equal sharing of electrons between atoms with similar electronegativities
Nucleoside Component of a nucleotide consisting of a nitrogenous base and a five-carbon sugar
Nucleotide Monomer of a nucleic acid, which is composed of a nucleoside and a phosphate
Organic compounds Molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms
Peptide bond A covalent bond between amino acids
pH scale A scale used for measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
Phospholipids Phosphate containing lipids made up of molecules with two fatty acid chains
Polar covalent bond A type of bond in which there us an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms with opposite electrical charges
Polysaccharide Carbohydrate polymer composed of several to thousands of covalently linked monosaccharides
Polymer Repeating chain of covalently linked monomers in a molecule
Products The atoms, ions, or molecules that remain after a chemical reaction is complete
Protein A complex macromolecule consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur
Proton A positively charged subatomic particle
Reactants Reactants The atoms, ions, or molecules that exist at the beginning of a chemical reaction
Salt A crystalline compound formed by ionic bonding of elements
Saturated fatty acid A long-chain, organic acid in which all but the terminal carbon atoms are covalently linked to two hydrogen atoms
Steroids Steroids Lipids consisting of four fused carbon rings attached to various side chains and functional groups
Synthesis reaction A chemical reaction involving the formation of larger, more complex molecules
Thymine A nucleotide that forms two hydrogen binds with adenine
Unsaturated fatty acid A long-chain, organic acid with at least one double bond between adjacent carbon atoms
Urasil A nucleotide that forms two hydrogen binds with adenine
Valence The combining capacity of an atom
Wax An alcohol containing lipid made up of molecules with one fatty acid chain
Created by: rgault