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Embryology

UWORLD + FA review

QuestionAnswer
Meckel Diverticulum is due to Failed obliteration of the Vitelline (Omphalomesenteric) duct
What is the common presentation of Meckel diverticulum: Spontaneous but painless lower GI bleeding
What test is used to diagnose Meckel Diverticulum? Tc-pertechnetate, which localized ectopic gastric mucosa
What another name used for Omphalomesenteric duct? Vitelline duct
What are common examples of Ventral Wall defects? Omphalocele and Gastroschisis
Pathology of ventral wall defects? Failure of lateral body folds to develop and not close
What is the failed physiolgical process for imperforate anul? Improper hindgut descend along the Inferior mesenteric artery
Abnormal malrotation around the SMA Intestinal malrotation
Intestinal malrotation often presents with: Obstruction and Painful bilious emesis in the first days of life
What pathology is described as the intestine is fixed by fibrous bands around a major blood vessel? Intestinal malrotation
Which junction is the most common involved in Unilateral Fetal Hydronephrosis? Ureteropelvic junction
What is the cause of unilateral fetal hydronephrosis? Inadequate canalization of the ureteropelvic junction
Which part is often associated with the development of Non-obstructive fetal hydronephrosis? Vesicourethral junction
The vesicourethral junction is most likely associated with _______ leading to a chronic state of? Reflux (due to incomplete closure; chronic dilation of the ureter and renal pelvis
What are the two main reasons for the development of Polyhydramnios? 1. Impaired fetal swallowing 2. Increased fetal Urination
What pathologies are associated with Polyhydramnios development due to impaired swallowing? Fetal GI obstruction (esophageal, duodenal or Intestinal atresia), and anencephaly.
High fetal Cardiac output is related to: Alloimmunization, Parvovirus infection, and fetomaternal hemorrhage, leading to increased fetal urination, causing POLYHYDRAMNIOS.
Oligohydramnios is associated with: - Renal agenesis - Posterior urethral valves in males - Potter sequence - Pulmonary hypoplasia
Potter sequence Fetal compression by the uterus, due to abnormally low levels of amniotic fluid ("cushion like fluid")
Too little (low) amniotic fluid Oligohydramnios
What is the definition of aplasia? defective development or congenital absence
No upper vagina. Suspect diagnosis? Mullerian aplasia
Mullerian aplasia is also known as: Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome
Mullerian aplasia is presented as: No upper vagina (short vagina) and abnormal or variable affection of the uterus, but normal ovaries and secondary sexual characteristics
What is the effect of the abnormal uterus in Mullerian aplasia? Development of primary amenorrhea
MCC of Kallmann syndrome Decreased GnRH synthesis in the Hypothalamus, leading to Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
What is the clinical presentation of Kallmann Syndrome? Rarely affects females, but those affected present with: Primary amenorrhea, no secondary sexual characteristics, and Olfactory sensory deficits
If a woman with primary amenorrhea and a decrease sense of smell presents in office. Suspect diagnosis? Kallmann Syndrome
The Mullerian Ducts: Stimulated by: -----> ESTROGEN Give rise to: Fallopian Tubes, Uterus, and Upper vagina
The Wolffian ducts: Stimulated by : ----------> TESTOSTERONE Give rise to the: Epididymitis, vas Deferens, and Seminal vesicles
What is the MC initial cause for the development of Oligohydramnios? Renal agenesis
Oligohydramnios develop __________ _______________: Potter Sequence: - Pulmonary Hypoplasia --> due to lack of normal alveolar distension by aspirated amniotic fluid - Flat facies - Limb deformities
What is the pulmonary deficit seen in Potter sequence? Pulmonary hypoplasia due to lack of normal alveolar distension
Intestinal malrotation is due to ___________ undergoes incomplete embryological ____________________ rotations, around the ________. Midgut; counterclockwise; SMA
What are the two main symptoms of Intestinal malrotation? 1. Intestinal Obstruction: - compression by adhesive (Ladd's) bands in the RLQ, around the 2nd part of the duodenum. 2. Midgut volvulus: - intestinal ischemia due to twisting around the blood vessels (SMA)
What is the emesis description of intestinal malrotation? Painful, bilious emesis
What major blood body is associated with possible ischemia in intestinal malrotation? SMA
ARPKD is associated with: Renal insufficiency leading to the development of Potter Sequence, nephromegaly, and HTN
What are the dorsal pancreatic bud derivatives? Forms the majority of the pancreas tissue (body, tail, and most of head), and the Accessory pancreatic duct
What are the Ventral pancreatic bud derivatives? It is a precursor of the Uncinate process, inferior and posterior portion of pancreatic head, and major pancreatic bud
What is the name of the Major pancreatic bud? Of Wirsung
The Ventral bud gives rise to the ______________ or known as the ____________, while the dorsal gives rise to the ______________ known as ________________. Ventral -- Wirsung duct (main duct) Dorsa -- of Santorini (accessory duct)
Pancreas divisum failed dorsal and ventral pancreatic bus to fuse
In cases of Pancreas divisum, which is the duct that drains most of the Pancreas? Accessory duct from the Dorsal Pancreatic bud
What is the most oxygenated fetal blood vessel? Umbilical vein, which drains into the IVC via the ductus venosus.
The umbilical arteries have deoxygenated blood
What is the adult remnant of the Ductus venosus? Ligamentum venosum
What is the adult remnant of the Umbilical vein? Ligamentum teres
What is the adult remnant of the Umbilical arteries? Medial umbilical ligaments
Annular Pancreas Pancreatic tissue encircling the descending duodenum, dut to failure of ventral pancreatic bud to properly migrate and fuse with dorsal pancreatic bud during the 7th and 8th week of gestation.
What are the levels abnormally high in Neural Tube defect screening? AFP and AChE
Elevated AChE and AFP is indicative of: Possible neural tube defects to the fetus
Spina bifida, will show abnormal levels of in pregnancy blood levels? High AChE and AFP levels
What two substances are secreted by the Sertoli cells in order to differentiate into a phenotypic male? 1. Anti-Mullerian Hormone --> aids to actively regress the internal female organs 2. MIF --> involution of Paramesonephric ducts
Foramen ovale is due to: incomplete fusion of atrial septal primum and secundum
ASD is due to: Aphasia of atrial septal secundum
Aplasia of atrial septal secundum ASD
VSD is due to: Incomplete closure of the interventricular foramen
Hypospadias is due to: incomplete fusion of urethral (urogenital) folds
What do the urogenital folds become in the female? Labia minora (do not fuse)
Labia majora is due to: Persistent separation during development of the Labioscrotal folds
What is the cause of Bifid scrotum? Labioscrotal failure to fuse together
Created by: rakomi