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Unique kingdom of heterotrophic organisms? Fungi
No. Of species of fungi? Approx? 70,000 to 1 lac
Fungi shows Great diversity in morphology and habitat
Total no. Of species of fungus is more than? Total no. Of species of FARM- fishes, amphibians, reptiles and mammals
Basis of classification of fungi MSF- morphology, mode of spore formation and fruiting body
Classes of fungi Phycomycetes (algal fungi) and eumycota (true fungus)
Aquatic fungus Oomycetes (water mould/ egg fungi) and chytrid (chytridiomycetes)
Phycomycetes? Algal fungi
Eumycota? True fungus
Phycomycetes includes? Oomycetes, chytridiomycetes and zygomycetes (conjugation fungi)
Zygomycetes? Conjugation fungi
Eumycota includes? Ascomycetes, basidio and deutero
Ascomycetes? Sac fungi
Basidio? Club fungi
Deutero? Fungi imperfecti
Fungii grow in Warm and humid conditions
Habitat fungi? Fungi are cosmopoliton and occur in air, water, soil and on animals and plants
Why does food not spoil in refrigerator? Growth of microbes there is slow
Fungal body consists of Long slender thread like structure called hyphae. The network of hyphae is the body of fungus and is called mycelium
Hyphae are usually? Branched and multicellular
Unicellular fungus Yeast
Network of hyphae? Mycelium
Yeast forms? Sometimes? Pseudomycelia
Coenocytic hyphae? Hyphae are like continuous tubes filled with multicellular cytoplasm
Septate? Hyphae have septa or cross walls. Such septa have pores through which cells are connected
Coenocytic examples Phycomycetes
Septate ex? Asco, basidio and deutero
Fungul cell wall is made of? Chitin and has mixed glycan on the outside
What is chitin? Polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine
Mode of nutrition? Heterotrophs (3)- saprophytic, parasite and symbiont
Food reserve ? Glycogen and oil
Saprophytic fungi work as? Decomposers
Saprophytic explain Live on dead organic matter and take nutrition from it. They secrete digestive enzymes and digest the orgainc matter outside the body and absorb soluble organic matter from dead substrates. Breakdown the organic matter and decompose and are involved in nu
How do fungi penetrate through plant epidermis Mechanical presuure and enzyme action
For penetrating the plant epidermis, they form? Appresorium
As parasite, hyphae grow in? Intercellular spaces and obsorb organic nutrients from them
Parasite fungus depends on Plants and animals
Parasite fungus mostly infect? Plants
Chemicals produced by host plant to inhibit the growth of fungus? Phytoalexin
First discovered fungisite? Bordeaux mixture
Bordeux mixture consists? CuSO4+ Ca(OH)2 and H2O
Bordeaux mixture was first used as? To contol downy mildew of grapes in plants
Symboint ex? Lichen and mycorrhiza
Reproduction? Vegetative, sexual and asexual
Vegetative reproduction? Fragmentation, binary and budding
Fragmentation happens in? Vegetative, in all fungi
Binary fission ex? Yeast
Budding happens in? Yeast
Asexual reproduction by? Asexual spores called- MiToSPORES
Sexual spores? Zoospore, aplanospore/sporangiospore, conidiospore
Zoospore? Wall less and motile spore produced endogenously inside zoosporangia
Zoospore ex? Aquatic like oomycetes and chytridiomycetes
Terrestrial fungus? Zygomycetes (P), asco- basidio- deutero (E)
Zoospores are produced in Inside zoosporangia- endogenously
Aplanospore also called Sporangiospore
Aplanospore? Non- motile, endogenous, multinucleated formed inside sporangia
Ex of aplanospore Sporangiospore- zygomycetes (rhizopus and mucor
Aplanospores are produced in? Sporangia
Conidia Or conidiospores- exogenous- formed on the tip of special mycelium- conidia
How are conidia dispersed? By wind and they germinate to form a new mycelium
Conidia ex? Asco and deutero
Basidio reproduce by? Only fragmentation (vegetative) and sexual
Mitospores are found in basidio? No
All fungus reproduce sexually? No, except deutero
Do fungi require water for fertilisation? No
Steps in the sexual cycle of fungus Plasmogamy-karyogamy-zygotic meiosis
Result of plasmogamy Dikaryon formation (cell with 2 nuclei)
Result of karyogamy Diploid zygote formation
Result of zygotic meiosis 4 haploid meiospores are formed
Zygote undergoes meiosis and forms 4 haploid meiospores
Ehat happens to these spores (meiospores) These spores germinate to produce haploid thallus mycelium
After karyogamy, what happens Karyogamy results in diploid zygote formation and this zygote develops a thick wall and forms a resting spore- zygospore (in zygomycetes) and oospore (in oomycetes)
What do these spores do? (Zygospore/ oospore) In favourable conditions, these spores divide by meiosis to form meiospore
What happens in asco and basidio Karyogamy is delayed after dikaryon formation. Dikaryon cell does mitosis to form an intervening stage- dikaryophase of fungus
How is fruiting body formed? It is formed in asco and basidio when karyogamy is delayed. Here, each dikaryon cell mitosis and forms mycelium having (n+n). This mycelium forms a distinct structure called fruiting body
Fruiting bodies in asco and basidio? Ascocarp and basidiocarp
What happens to asco and basidiocarp Each cell does karyogamy and the cell becomes diploid ZYGOTE. This cell ividea by meiosis to form meiospores (ascospore and basidiospore)
Fruting body is formed in? Asco and basidio
Normal (no delayed karyogamy) in? Phyco
Name the sexual spores of fungus Zygospore, oospore, ascospore, basidiospore
Phycomycetes- lifestyle and habitat Aquatic habitat, decaying wood in damp and moist places and as obligate parasites on plants
Mycelium of phyco Branched, multicellular, aseptate/coenocytic
Phyco- asexual reproduction Zoospore and aplanospore/sporangiospore
Planogametic population Three types of sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction- phyco Isogamy (zygo), anisogamy (zygo), oogamy (oomycetes)
Oogamy involves One large non motile egg and one small motile male gamete- oomycetes
Rhizopus and mucor reproduction? Asexual- aplanospore/ sporangiospore. Sexual- gamatangial comjugation- isogamous
Oomycetes ex Albugo candida/ cytopus candida, phytopthora infestas, phytopthora palmivora, pythium
Albugo candida/ cytopus candida Causes white rust of mustard/ crucifers, in which white spots are seen on mustard leaves. Is a parasite
Phytopthora infestans Causes late blight of potato (irish famine)
Phytopthora palmivora First bioherbicide
Pythium Has cellulose cell wall. Causes damping off seedlings
Zygo ex Rhizopus, mucor, glomus
First bio herbicide Phytopthora palmivora
Rhizopus The Black bread mould
Mucor Pin mould
Glomus Is a biofertilizer which forms endomycorrhiza in roots of grasses
Asco- habitat (4)- saprophytic, decomposers, parasitic and coprophilous (dung)
Mycelium asco Branched, multicellular, septate
Unicellular ascomycetes Yeast
Asexual reproduction- asco By conidia- produced exogenously (exospore) on conidiophores.
Conidia on germination produces Mycelium
Zoospores Are wallless and motile- aquatic phyco
Aplanospores Non motile- multinucleate black coloured spores in zygo of phyco
Sexual rep- asco By fruting body/ ascocarp
In asco, karyogamy occurs in? Ascus mother cell
Karyogamy is followed by- in asco? Meiosis but somtimes mitosis. In this way, 4 or 8 endogenous ascospores are formed inside ascus
Endogenous ascospores in ascus forms Haploid thallus
Types of ascocarp Apothecium (saucer shape), perithecium (flask shape), cleistothecium (closed ascocarp). (Aposaucer, periflask and cleistoclosed)
Examples of cleistothecium Closed ascocarp- aspergillus, penicillium
Closed ascocarps are found in Aspergillus and penicillium
Asco ex? (9)- claviceps purpurae, yeast, morels, truffle, peziza, erysiphe, giberella fujikorai, aspergillus and penicillium (clever yeast)
Claviceps purpurea Causes ergot of rye, hallucinogen LSD, medicine for high BP and to induce uterus contraction. It’s consumption causes St. antony’s fire.
Yeast (3)- saccharimyces cerevisiae, candida albicans, monascus purpureus.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bread and beer production
Candida albicans Candidiasis/ thrush and otomycosis (ear infection)
Monascus purpureas Produces statins (drug) which is reduces blood cholesterol
Morel and truffle Morel (morchella) and truffle (tuber) are edible and are considered delicacies.
Erysiphe Causes powdery mildew
Gibberela fujikorai Foolish seedling diseases
Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus Storage grains- aflatoxin- liver cancer.
A. Niger causes Citrus acid, takadiastase. Causes otomycosis
Aspergillus antibiotic Flavicin, fumigallin
Otomycosis is caused by Yeast (candida) and aspergillus niger
Aspergillosis is caused by A. Flavus
Citric acid and takadiastase are Aspergillus niger)- are biotech products
Flavicin and fumigallin are Antibiotics- (aspergillus)
Penicillium notatum Are blue/green mould- rot of citrus/orange. Cheese- roquefort. Antibiotics- penicillin, griseofulvin
Penicillium antibiotics Penicillin and griseofulvin
Roquefort cheese Penicillium notatum
Foolish seedling disease is caused by Giberalla fujikorai
Bakane of rice is caused by Giberalla fujikorai
Neurospora Is a pink bread mould- used in biochemical and gentic work
Basidio habitat Soil, on logs and tree stumps, plant parasites- rust and smuts
Mycelium- basidio Multicellular,branched, septate. The septa has a special type of barrel shaped pore- dolipore septa. Secondary mycelia (dikaryo phase) has clamp connection
Asexual reproduction- basidio Asexual spores- not found. Vegetative reproduction- fragmentation
Sexual rep- basidio Sex organs are absent. Plasmogamy is done by fusion of two vegetative or somatic cells of diff genotype/ strain.
What happens after plasmogamy- basidio? Dikaryotic basidiocarp is formed by mitosis of dikaryotic stage
In basidiocarp Large no. Of basidia (s.- basidium) are aaranged. Undergo karyogamy and meiosis- 4 exogenous haploid basidiospores formed. - Haploid thallus
The dikaryotic stage is v long as compared to asco
Rust diseases? By basidio- black stem rust of wheat, yellow stripe rust of wheat, brown orange leaf rust.
Black/ stem rust of wheat is caused by Puccinia graminis tritici
Yellow/ stripe rust is caused by? Puccinia striiformis
Brown rust/ orange rust/ leaf rust is caused by P. Recomdita tritici
Puccinia Is obligatory heteroecious (wheat and barberry) parasite. Causes air borne disease and is a type of epiphytotic diseases
Rust cycle stages Uredia stage, telia stage, acecia stage.
Himgiri variety of rust disease is resistant to Hill bunt (type of smut) and leaf (brown/orange rust) and stripe (yellow rust)
Rust disease is Air air borne disease
Rust diseases caused by Puccinia
Black /stem rust of wheat Puccinia graminis tritici
Yellow /stripe rust of wheat Puccinia striiformis
Brown rust/ orange rust/ leaf rust Puccinia recondita tritici
Puccinia is Epiphytic disease
Basidia infects Barberry (forms pyccinia stage)
Aeciospore? Transfers infection from barberry to wheat
Stages of rust cycle in wheat Uredia stage- telia stage- basidia stage
Colour of uredia stage Brown
Telia stage colour Black
Uredia stage infects Urediospores Reinfects wheat
Urediospore undergo Mitosis and form teleutospore
Teleutospores of telia stage ? Black coloured undergo karyogamy
Urediospores and teleutospores are Dikaryon
After karyogamy, what happens? Meiosis and basiospores (basidia) are formed
Stages of rust cycle in barberry Puccinia and accia stage
Basidia infects barberry and undergo pyccinia stage and plasmogamy happens where they reach accia stage. What happens after that? Acciospores formed (dikaryon) which tranfer the infection from barberry to wheat
Dikaryon formation in Uredia, telia and accecia stage
Plasmogamy in Puccinia stage
Meisosis happens in Basidia stage
Karyogamy in Telia stage
Smut disease is spread by Seed and flowers
Loose smut of wheat? Ustilago
Common smut fungus Ustilago
The area affected by smut disease transforms into Sooty mass of spores. Common fungus causing is ustilago
Edible mushroom Agaricus (its basiocarp is edible and is a saprophytic fungus)
What is spawn It is the seed of mushroom which is a secondary mycelium
Toad stool Poisonous mushroom- amanita
Amanita forms Endo mycorrhizae and amantia is a hallucinogenic
Seed of agaricus? Spawn is a seed of mushroom which is a secondary mycelium
Mushroom is also called Gill fungus
Types of gill fungus Agaricus and toadstool/poisonous
Puffball? Lycoperdon, calvatia
Bracket fungi Ganoderma
Phallus Stinkhorn fungus
Psilocybe? Hallucinogen psilocybin
Polyporus also called Trametes (turkey tail)
White rot of wood or lignin removal from pulp is caused by? Polyporus/ trametes (turkey tail) and phanerochaete
Rx of basidio Puccinia, ustilago, mushroom (edible and posionous), puffball, bracket fungi, phallus, psilocybe, polyporus/trametes (turkey tail) and phanerochaete
Deuteromycetes is also called Fungi imperfecti
Why is deutero called imperfecti No sexual reproduction
Most of the members of deutero have features similar to Asco
Habitat and lifestyle- deutero Saprophytic or parasites or majority- decomposers of litter and help in mineral cycling
Mycelium deutero Branched, multicellular and septate
Deutero help im Mineral recycling
ASexual reproduction deutero? By conidia
Early blight of potato by? Alternaria soleni
Tikka disease of groundnut by Cervospora personata
Red rot of sugarcane Colletotrichum
Arhar is also called Pigeon pea
Wilt of arhar/ pigeon pea Fusarium udum
What caused bengal famine Brown/ sesame leaf spot of rice- helminthosporium oryzae
Ring worm is caused by? 3 deutero- trichophyton interdigitae, epidermophyton, microsporum
Athlete foot by? Trichophyton
Cyclosporin A ? An immunosuppresent- trichoderma polysporun
Trichoderma viridae and T harzianum used? Biological control of plant fungul diseases. It produces chitinase and cellulase
Use of fungus in patients undergoing organ transplant Trichoderma polysporum- is used as immunosuppressant
Fungus used for biocontrol of plant fungal disease Trichoderma viridae and trichoderma harzianum
Fusarium graminearumv(quorn)- SCP
Lichen? Composite organism of algae and fungus
Mycorrhizae? Fungul roots- in symbiotic relationship with higher plant roots
Lichens relationship? Symbiotic b/w algae and fungus
Phycobiant? Is the algal partner (green algae usually)- produces food by photosynthesis- BGA can also be there
Mycobiant Asco or basidio- heterotrophic partner- provides shelter to algae and absorbs water and mineral nutrients from substratum and provides it to algae
Relational b/w phycobiant and mycobiant is? Slave- master relationship
Lichens grow Very slow (few mm per year)
Slave master relationship is called Helotism- fungus/mycobiant is dominant and cant live without algae. Algae can occur in free conditions
Flat lichen? Crustose lichen
Leaf lichen? Foliose lichen
Bushy lichen Fruticose lichen
Foliose lichen is aatached to substratum by? Rhizoid
Fruticose lichen is attached to substratum by Disc
Cephylla? Structure on lichen thallus helping in respiration
Structures helping in vegetative reproduction? Isidia and sorrdia
Importance of lichen Pollution indicators. Lichens+mosses are the pioneers of community in ecological succession on roch as they secrete acids that corrode rock and paedogenesis
What kind of relationship is there in mycorrhizae? Symbiotic- fungus provides water and mineral to root of higher plants and plant provides sugar and nitrogen containing compounds to fungus
Mainly fungus helps in? Phosphorus absorption
Types of mycorrhizae? Endomyco, ecto
Endomycorrhiza Penetrate cortex cells and form vesicle, arbuscule and pelaton. Commonly seen in grasses and orchids. All are biofertilizers
Ex of endomyco Glomus, gigaspora and sclerocystis (zygomycetes- aspetate)
Ectomyco Live in ICS and byphae dont penetrate the cells
Ectomyco is seen in? Trees like pine and eucalyptus. With Amantia
Created by: Jasmeetkamdar
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