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Yr12 Cells

Definitions for Cells AS91156

TermDefinition
Active transport The movement of a substance across a membrane against a concentration gradient using energy. (From low to high conc)
Activation barrier The amount of energy required to make the reaction occur. Enzymes effectively lower this so the reaction can occur more readily.
Amino acids Building blocks of protein
Carrier protein A protein channel in the plasma membrane that allows for transport of big molecules like glucose from one side of the cell to the other
cell The basic building block of living things. There are many different types.
Cell signalling Process of how cells communicate to each other using chemicals eg hormones or electrical signals.
Cell membrane A membrane that controls entry and exit of substances into and out of a cell
Cell wall A fibrous structure that provides support and shape for the cell as commonly found in plant cells and bacteria.
Chloroplast An organelle found in green plants that contain the green pigment chlorophyll. It is important for the process of photosynthesis and is where it occurs.
Chlorophyll Green pigment used to trap light energy to split water for photosynthesis
Co-factor A chemical that assist an enzyme to function
cytoplasm Jelly like substance containing the organelles of the cell and where chemical reactions take place
denaturation The process of changing the shape of an enzyme due to high temperatures or non-ideal pH levels which prevents it working.
diffusion Movement of a substance from high to low concentration without energy. It is a form of passive transport.
DNA Deoxyribose nucleic acid – a long double stranded molecule containing thousands of genes which code for particular traits.
enzyme A biological catalyst that speeds up biochemical reactions without being used up in the reaction; almost all are proteins.
Facilitated diffusion Process of passive transport where a substance is moved from high to low concentration without energy across a membrane using a carrier or channel.
hypertonic A solution that is high in ion concentration, more than the cell causing water to move out of the cell into the solution.
hypotonic A solution which has a lower ion concentration than the amount of ions in the cell floating in it.
Induce fit Model explaining how an enzyme-substrate functions to speed up biochemical reactions.
inhibitor A substance that blocks the active site of an enzyme or denatures an enzyme and prevents it from functioning.
Ion pump A Na+ /K+ pump or H+ pump involving the use of these ions to help transport substances from one side of the cell to the other. Usually involve energy.
isotonic A solution that has equal ion concentration as the cell.
meiosis Process of cellular division to produce gametes
mitochondria An organelle where respiration takes place in cells.
mitosis Process of cells copying to produce new cells.
nucleus The control centre of the cell containing genetic material (DNA or RNA).
organelle A small structure within a cell that serves a particular function
osmosis A form of passive transport where water molecules move from high water concentration to low water concentration across a semi-permeable membrane.
Passive transport The movement of a substance along the concentration gradient without using energy (from high to low conc).
Peptide bond Chemical bond between amino acids
photosynthesis A process in green plants where light energy is trapped by chlorophyll to produce glucose and oxygen.
Protein Many amino acids join together to form a protein which is a polypeptide bond. Some proteins are fibrous eg skin and some are globular eg enzymes.
respiration Chemical process where glucose is oxidized to produce ATP, water and carbon dioxide.
Ribosomes Small organelles either attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum or floating free in the cytoplasm. It is where protein synthesis occurs.
Created by: kjsime