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Pulmonary

Key definitions and concepts

QuestionAnswer
PO2 driving force for diffusion of O2 into tissue
SaO2 percent heme groups occupied by O2
Cyanosis decreased O2 saturation or O2 content
Oxygen electron acceptor in oxidative pathway
Hypoxia inadequate O2 leads to ATP depletion
Ischemia decreased arterial (or venous) blood flow
Respiratory acidosis retention of CO, always decreases PaO2
Ventilation defect impaired delivery of O2 to alveoli intrapulmonary shunting of blood
Perfusion defect absent blood flow to alveoli increased alveolar dead space
RDS is an example of a _____________________ defect. Ventilation
Pulmonary embolism is an example of a _________________ defect. Perfusion
Diffusion defect O2 cannot cross alveolar-capillary interface
Diffusion defect interstitial lung disease
Sarcoidosis is an example of ___________________ defect. Diffusion
Methemoglobin decreased SaO2 heme Fe3+; oxidizing agents
What is the common treatment of Methemoglobin? IV methylene blue
What are some common oxidizing agents? Sulfur and nitro drugs
Clinical Methemoglobinemia Cyanosis not corrected by O2 chocolate colored blood
Carbon monoxide Decreased SaO2 that causes left-shift O2 binding curve
______________ _____________ inhibits cytochrome oxidase. Carbon monoxide
What are some common causes of carbon monoxide intoxication? Car exhaust, space heaters, smoke inhalation
What are signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning? headache, cherry red color skin
Cyanide inhibits cytochrome oxidase; systemic asphyxiant
What causes LEFT-shift on O2 curve? DECREASED in: - 2,3-BPG, - carbon monoxide - alkalosis - HbF - methemoglobin - hypothermia
What causes a RIGHT-shift on O2 curve? INCREASED in: - 2,3-BPG, - high altitude, - acidosis - fever
High altitude respiratory alkalosis enhances glycolysis Increases synthesis of 2, 3-BPG
Mitochondrial poisons damages membrane and drain off protons alcohol , salicylates
Uncoupling agents in mitochondria drain off protons dinitrophenol, thermogenin (brown fat)
Thermogenin brown fat
Complication mitochondrial poisons/ uncoupling agents hyperthermia
Decreased ATP impaired Na+/K+ ATPase pump (cellular swelling)
Aerobic glycolysis ATP synthesis in hypoxia Lactate decreses intracellular pH, and denatures proteins
Irreverisibly injur hypoxia Membrane/mitochondrial damage
Mitochondrial damage release of cytochrome c activates apoptosis
Free radicals
CO + Cyanide poisoning is seen in _____________________. house fires
Created by: rakomi