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BIOLOGY GLOSSARY 5

chapter 5 glossary terms

QuestionAnswer
Aerobic respiration the breakdown of glucose in the cell using oxygen, the energy from which is used to synthesise ATP. Aerobic respiration is comprised of glycolysis, the krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
C3 plant a plant that uses the most common form of photosynthesis in plants, in which the first carbon-containing product is a 3-carbon compound
Calvin cycle a cyclic biochemical pathway in the light-independant reactions of photosynthesis, in which carbon from carbon dioxide becomes fixed in the synthesis of carbohydrate
Chlorophyll the green pigment found in chloroplasts in plants, and within some prokaryotic cells, that absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
Cristae the folded structures of the inner membrane of mitochondria
Cyanobacteria photosynthesising prokaryotic organisms with a similar structure to chloroplasts
Endosymbiosis proposes that eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts were once single-cell organisms that were engulfed by cells and lived in symbiosis with them, eventually evolving into a unified cell
FAD falvin adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme that functions as an electron carrier in metabolic reactions
Fermentation stage in the breakdown of glucose to yield energy for the production of ATP, which follows glycolysis when there is no oxygen present. Produces either lactic acid (in most animals) or alcohol in the form of ethanol (in most plants and microorganisms)
Grana a stack of flattened discs composed of the thylakoid membranes found in chloroplasts
Light-dependent reaction the reactions in photosynthesis in which light captured by chlorophyll is used to split water to produce oxygen, and ATP and NADPH for use in the light-independent reactions
Light-independent reaction the reactions in photosynthesis in which the energy in ATP and NADPH from the light dependent reactions is used to fix carbon into carbohydrates. These reactions are part of a biochemical pathway called the Calvin cycle
Light saturation curve a plateu-shaped graph of the rate of photosynthesis versus light intensity. The point at which the curve plateus is the point at which a further increase in light intensity brings about no further in photosynthesis
Mitochondrial matrix the aqueous solution enclosed by the inner membrane of the cristae of mitochondria. It is the site of the reactions of the krebs cycle
NAD+ nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme that functions as an electron carrier during photosynthesis
Photosynthesis the process used by plants, algae, and some prokaryotes in which nutrients are produced from carbon dioxide, water, and light energy
Porin a transmembrane protein, commonly found in the membranes of prokaryotes, mitochondria , and chloroplasts, that acts as a channel through which molecules can diffuse
Stromata the fluid matrix part of a chloroplast in which the light-independent reactions occur
Symbiotic a close long-term relationship between individual organisms of two different species, usually to the advantage of both
Thylakoid lamelle the sheet-like thylakoid membranes between the grana in the chloroplasts
Created by: emmawalton05