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L2 Genetics

Characteristic general expression of a gene, eg a form of the ripe seed, colour of the flower
Trait alternative forms of the genetic characteristic, eg wrinkled seeds and smooth seeds, purple flowers and white flowers.
P1 generation a cross made between two pure-breeding parent plants
F1 generation first filial generation, the hybrid offspring of the P1 cross.
F2 generation second filial generation, the offspring from inbreeding the F1 generation.
Genotype The genetic make-up of an organism; the gene formula of an organism.
Phenotype The physical, physiological, or chemical expression of an organism's genes, (ie what the trait looks like).
Allele Alternative form of a gene at a locus.
Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a given trait.
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a given trait.
Recessive allele In a heterozygote, the allele that is completely masked in the phenotype.
Dominant allele In a heterozygote, the allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype.
Hybrid The offspring of two animals or plants of different races, breeds, varieties, species or genera.
Test cross or back cross Breeding of an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual, to determine the unknown genotype. The ratio of phenotypes in the offspring determines the unknown genotype.
Incomplete dominance A type of inheritance where the offspring shows a phenotype that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parents eg red and white --> pink.
Lethal alleles An allele that has a prominent visible effect as a heterozygote and is lethal as a homozygote.
Codominance The phenotype of the offspring shows features of both parental traits.
Multiple alleles Where there are more than two alternative alleles for a gene locus, eg blood groups
Monohybrid cross A cross that considers parental varieties that differ in a single characteristic
Dihybrid cross A cross that considers parental varieties that differ in two characteristics.
Sex-linked genes Genes located on one sex chromosome but not the other (usually the X chromosome) eg haemophilia, colour-blindness.
Created by: kjsime