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Exam 3

Chapter 6, 10, and 11

QuestionAnswer
1. Explain how technology increases or decreases the impact of a population on the environment (extra credit). Less crop land use; more efficient farming methods Less CO2 more efficient for cleaner fuels Higher use of resources (land, food, H2O, minerals, and energy) Greater production of waste (solid waste, air pollution, water, pollution, and heat)
2. Describe the environmental effects of urbanization and outline how cities can be made more sustainable. (extra credit) Urban sprawl (loss of farmland) Deteriorating infrastructure Rising poverty in central cities Waste (air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, heat and solid waste) Increased water use Increased energy use Traffic jams
3. Term for ever-increasing rate of growth; increases by a fixed percent per year. Exponential growth
4. Term used for the carrying capacity of the environment. Already defined
5. Term used for growth that slows down as it reaches K. Carrying Capacity
6. Term used for the intrinsic rate of population growth. R
7. Term used when a population's births and deaths are balanced and births are at replacement rate (or lower). Zero population growth
8. List some factors that will increase the population size of an area Medicine and public health Public safety and law enforcement Increased food supply in transportation Increased life expectancy and maximum life expectancy More people surviving to have children
9. Term used for the average total number of children a woman will have over her lifetime. Replacement fertility rate
10. Term used for the births per 1000 ( or 100,000) population per year. Birth rate
11. Term used for the birth rate per woman over her lifetime to keep a population constant (assuming no immigration emigration). Replacement level fertility
12. Term used for deaths per 1000 (or 100,000) population year. Death rate
13. The population of a country in the post-industrial phase of the Demographic Transition is table or declining. List some countries that are in this phase. Japan or Germany
14. List some causes of death that will increase with population growth. Diseases, predication, parasitism
15. Give the continent with the highest rates of growth between South America, North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. Afica
16. Give the continent with the lowest growth between South America, North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. Europe
17. List countries discussed in lecture with age structure pyramids indicating rapidly growing populations. Kenya or Nigeria
18. List the methods by which a government or international agency can reduce the rate of population growth a society. Government programs to reward population restraint punish high reproductive rates Reduce poverty Encourage education of women Access to contraception Social programs to care for elderly Reward low birth rates punish higher reproduction Technology
19. List the factors that have cased the human population Earth to increase. Decrease mortality: rapid drops in death rates. Medicine and public health Public safety and law enforcement Increase food supply in transportation Increased life expectancy and maximum life expectancy More people surviving to have children
20. Use the rule of 72 to calculate a country's population doubling time for each of the following annual growth rates (1%, 2%. 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%). 72/1=72 72/2= 36 72/3=24 72/4=18 72/5=14.4 72/6=12
21. List the methods that the government of China has used to reduce the rate of population growth. China has done this before in 2 child law in 1973, and 1 child law in 1979
22. (Extra Credit) Describe alternative methods of pest control in agriculture including how these techniques cause fewer environmental problems than the usual farming practices. Biological control Integrated Pest management Genetic engineering Pheromones, hormones, and sterile males Strip cropping (reduces or eliminates pesticide use
23. Term used for a chemical that kills pests. Pesticide
24. Term used for any organism that competes with humans for foods, destroys shelter, invades lawns and gardens, spreads disease, invades ecosystems or is simply a nuisance. Pest
25. Type of agriculture that uses machines and high inputs of fossil fuels, fertilizers, and pesticides. Industrial Agriculture
26. Type of agriculture that uses high levels of muscle power, whether from humans or animals, manure and labor-intensive methods of tilling and pest control. Intensive traditional agriculture
27. Type of pest control involving the use of another organism to control a pest. Biological control
28. Term used for Agricultural and livestock practices that maintain environment balance in the face of the intensive agriculture. Sustainable agriculture
29. Term for pest control using a variety of methods, including limited application of insecticides and other pesticides to control but not eliminate pests. Integrated pest management
30. Term used for planting different crops in strips in the same field instead of mono cultures. Strip cropping
31. Term used for sustainable agricultural practices that do not include artificial chemical inputs. Organic farming
32. Term used for leaving last year’s crop stubble on the field during winter to reduce erosion and increase nutrients. Not till agriculture or stubble agriculture
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Created by: DD0426