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Micro-Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
the science that studies when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted epidemiology
study of disease pathology
term for cause of disease---microbial/autoimmune/etc? (ex: mosquito bite/Malaria) etiology
development of the disease; disease progression (ex: kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion) pathogenicity
microbes invading and overcoming the body defenses; start to see the symptoms infection
the body is out of balance, not functioning normally; homeostasis out of balance disease
competes with transient pathogenic microbes for resources helping to prevent infection; can be supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics can be harmful resident flora (resident microbiota)
how normal microbiota becomes opportunistic relocation (E. coli moves from lower to upper GI), allowed to overgrow, weakened immune system, poor nutrition, stress
not spread from host to host (ex: rabies---have to be bit by wild animal to get disease) non-communicable
can be spread from host to host (ex: common cold, flu) communicable
period of time when the disease is most easily and rapidly spread contagious
whole number (ex: how many people total? how many people in a month?); number of occurrences incidence
percentage of incidence per some other condition prevalence
random increases in incidence; only occur occasionally sporadic
rapid increase in incidence in a short amount of time epidemic
epidemic that is world wide pandemic
can always be found (more prevalent) in that group/area (race, geographic region) endemic
fast onset, short duration acute
slow onset, long duration chronic
between acute and chronic subacute
disease has an acute onset, then a long dormant period before disease occurs again latent
disease/infection limited to a small area of the host body (ex: sinus infection, fungal infection of toe) local disease/infection
involves multiple organ systems (ex: sepsis) systemic
occurred in one area, but disease involved multiple organ systems (ex: cancer) focal infection/disease
infection in the blood stream septic/sepsis
pathology that caused initial symptoms (ex: Grandma breaks hip) primary pathology
another pathology after/or as a result of the primary (ex: get hip surgery and get infection) secondary pathology
predisposing factors of secondary pathology weakened immune system, illness, poor nutrition, stress, age, procedure
contracted in a clinical facility nosocomial, HAI
***disease progression curve: stage 1 incubation stage period; infection but no S/Sx
***disease progression curve: stage 2 prodromal (malaise); general discomfort (malaise) but no specific S/Sx
***disease progression curve: stage 3 disease stage; peak, get treatment
***disease progression curve: stage 4 convalescence; recovery period, stands but body is still healing
directly transmitted from another host direct transmission
transmitted by fomite; water borne, food borne, airborne (droplet) indirect transmission
location where the microbe can frequently be found reservoir
something that carries the microbe/disease from one host to another vector
not usually new diseases; rapid increase in infections; potential to mutate and rapidly increase emerging
catalog all the characteristics of the disease and etiology descriptive epidemiology
work with the number; track incidence and prevalence analytical (statistical) epidemiology
research; field research experimental epidemiology
USA -- CDC; global -- WHO; state and local -- health departments epidemiology agencies
portals of entry for microbes skin/parenteral, respiratory, digestive, urogenital
term for # of microbes to make 50% of subjects sick ID50 (Infectious dose at 50%)
term for # of microbes to kill 50% of subjects LD50 (lethal dose at 50%)
degree of damage caused by a microbe to its host virulence
most common portal of entry respiratory
T or F? Portal of exit usually same as portal of entry. True
how does virus adhere to host cell? antigen receptors
how does bacteria/protozoa adhere to host cell? surface proteins or sugars
ways microbes avoid phagocytosis biofilms/capsules, hide in mucous, hide in the phagocytes (Mycobacterium-- Acid fast -- Waxy lipids)
an infectious microbe alters the proteins or carbohydrates on its surface and thus avoids a host immune response antigen variation
beta hemalytic enzyme that breaks down clots coagulase
enzyme that breaks down collagen collagenase
enzyme that absorbs iron to cause the body to increase RBC production, and decrease WBC production; shutting of immune system (immunosuppressed) siderophores
enzymes damage cell structure, producing wastes, cell rupture through reproduction, production of exotoxins direct cell damage
cell damage caused by endotoxins, using host nutrients indirect cell damage
effects of cell damage caused by viruses cytopathic effects
C. diff bacteria, digestive
Brucellosis bacteria, digestive
Hepatitis C virus, skin
Epstein-Barr virus, digestive
MRSA bacteria, skin
Rabies virus, skin
E. coli bacteria, digestive
Bordetella pertussis (Whooping cough) bacteria, resp.
Ebola virus, skin
Chlamydia bacteria, urogenital
Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, resp.
Plasmodium (malaria) protozoa, skin
Candidiasis (Candida albicans) fungus, urogenital
prokaryotic domain and kingdom Domain-Prokarya, Kingdom-bacteria
process of bacterial growth/cell division binary fission
time it takes for the entire population to double generation time
bacterial standard growth curve steps lag, log, stationary, death
physical growth requirements of bacteria temp, pH, osmotic pressure
chemical growth requirements of bacteria carbon source, N/H/P/S, O2, growth factors (signal growth phase to start or stop), vitamins/minerals/other trace elements
prokaryotic cell shape: round, circular, oval coccus/cocci
prokaryotic cell shape: linear, rod-shaped bacillus
prokaryotic cell shape: spiral with one bend vibrio
prokaryotic cell shape: spiral with one complete turn spiral
prokaryotic cell shape: spiral with many turns (worm-like) spirillium/spirocheate
prokaryotic cell arrangement: no arrangement spirals always have no arrangement
prokaryotic cell arrangement: diplo 2; coccus, bacillus
prokaryotic cell arrangement: tetrads 4; cocci
prokaryotic cell arrangement: sarcinae cube-like (8); cocci
prokaryotic cell arrangement: strepto chain; coccus, bacillus
prokaryotic cell arrangement: staphylo cluster; coccus
prokaryotic cell arrangement: pallisades stacked back to back like bookends; bacillus
prokaryotic cell with one flagella monotrichous
prokaryotic cell with flagella at each pole amphitrichous
prokaryotic cell with clump of flagella at one pole lophotrichous
prokaryotic cell with flagella all over peritrichous
prokaryotic extracellular appendage found only on spirochetes axial filaments
prokaryotic extracellular appendage used for attachment to surfaces fimbriae
prokaryotic extracellular appendage used for attachment to other bacteria for transfer of DNA pili
prokaryotic "sugar coat" that protects prokaryote from the immune system and can also help prokaryote stick to surfaces (capsule, biofilm) glycocaylax
what makes up the prokaryotic cell wall? peptidoglycans and lipids
part of the prokaryotic cell that is a selectively permeable membrane plasma membrane
part of the prokaryotic cell that contains cytosol and other intracellular components plasma membrane
part of the prokaryotic cell that moves; it's the location of genetic material at any given time nucleoid
part of the prokaryotic cell responsible for protein synthesis 70s ribosomes
part of the prokaryotic cell that holds extra chromosomal DNA accumulated from other prokaryotes plasmid
Created by: nurse savage