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Psychology (neurons)

Three functions of neurons receive, process and co-ordinate a response
Role of PNS To communicate information from the body’s organs, glands and muscles to the CNS To communicate information FROM the CNS to the body’s organs, glands and muscles, via motor neurons.
Role of CNS (Brain) The Brain is the command centre responsible for coordinating all the body’s conscious and unconscious activities.
Role of CNS (spinal cord) To pass information along the sensory neurons from the peripheral nervous system to the brain. To transmit information from the brain to the peripheral nervous system which activates motor neurons.
Somatic NS Role (PNS) (SAME) (SA) Responsible for voluntary movement of the skeletal muscles S Sensory role (receives sensory information from receptor cells located throughout the body & communicates this information TO the CNS) A Afferent neurons (into CNS).
Autonomic NS Role (PNS) Responsible for the regulation of automatic/involuntary operations concerned with internal bodily functions such as respiration & heart beat. Non-skeletal muscles.
Somatic NS Role (PNS) (SAME) (ME) M Motor (receives motor messages & communicates information FROM the CNS for specific responses) eg kicking a football. E Efferent neurons (leaves CNS)
Motor neurons Initiates contractions of muscles (movement) & contraction of glands (hormones). One direction only, CNS Brain to muscles, glands & organs.
Sensory neurons nerve cells that carry messages from sensory organs & muscles to brain. One direction only, sensory organs & muscles to CNS.
Interneuron Make connection between neurons that rarely connect themselves. Relay messages from one type of neuron to another. Messages travel in one direction only from sensory to motor neurons.
How 3 neurons work together Sensory receptors send information through sensory (afferent) neurons to the spinal cord Interneurons in the spinal cord connect this information to the motor neurons so that the message can be sent back. Brain receives a message and registers the pain
Soma Structure that determines whether the neuron will be activated & send a message. It integrates the neural information it receives from the dendrites.
Dendrites Their structures are short widely branching extensions of the soma, up to 20 in one neuron. Each spine provides a site where a neuron can connect with and receive information from a neighbouring neuron.
Nodes of Ranvier small gaps where the myelin is missing.
Axon Most neurons have only one & varies in length from over a metre to the width of a single hair. Single tube like fluid filled extension that transmits information from the soma to other cells in the body. In the PNS axons collect together to make nerves
Axon Terminals Small branches at the end of an axon called axon collaterals. At the end of the collaterals are axon terminals. After receiving information it stimulates the release of neurotransmitter from the terminal buttons.
Terminal buttons Form junctions with other cells
Myelin sheath White fatty substance made up of glia cells that surrounds and insulates axon. – insulates axon from interference from other neurons. Allows for rapid movement of neural message along axon.
Glial cell Glial cells provide support for neuronal function. For example, they surround neurons and hold them in place, supply nutrients and insulation, and aid in the repair of neurons and elimination of waste materials.
Glial cell & Neuron difference Glial cells support the neurons.
Astrocytes (glial cells) In brain , star shaped & most numerous of glial cells, holds neurons in place, regulates blood flow to neurons, secrete chemicals to repair & keep neurons healthy. Involved in the blood brain barrier.
Microglia (glial cells) Extremely small, Acts like immune cells protecting neurons & devouring invaders, Aid in repair of neurons and acts as garbage collectors removing remains of dead neurons.
Oligodendroglia (glial cells) Insulate neurons by forming & maintaining myelin sheath.
Schwann cells (glial cells) Form and maintain myelin sheath in the PNS
Created by: noahcrispin



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