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Exam 1

What is biology? The scientific study of life
Which functions are a properly of life? Organisms exhibit complex but ordered organization, take in energy and use it to perform all of its activities and reproduce their own kind
Which substance is NOT recycled but rather is lost from ecosystems? energy
what is science? The inquiry based effort to describe and explain nature
What is a hypothesis? A proposed explanation for a set of observations
What is an example of a prediction if you start your car and it won’t start? If I recharge the battery, then my car will start
What are autotrophs? Organisms that convert the suns energy into chemical energy
What are the different levels of life from simple to most complex Molecules and atoms, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biosphere
What are prokaryotes? Organism with no organelles, no nucleus, has ribosomes, and is bound by a plasma membrane
What is an example of an element ? A Nitrogen
What is an example of a community? Squirrels climbing trees, rabbits eating grass, and birds singing on a fence
What is found Inside an atoms nucleus? Neutrons and protons
How do we determine how much protons, neutrons and electrons an atom has? Atoms have the same number of protons and electrons we can determine this by the atomic number, neutrons are determined by finding the difference between the atomic mass and the number of protons
What are isotopes of an element? They have the same number of protons and different numbers or neutrons
What is an ion? An atom with an electrical charge
What are covalent bonds? The bond involves the Sharing of electrons
Why is water considered a polar molecule? The oxygen end of the molecule has a slight negative charge and the hydrogen end has a slight positive charge
How do water molecules interact with one another? through hydrogen bonds
What is the solvent, solute, and solution of a sweetened coffee ? Coffee is the solvent, sugar is the solute, and sweetened coffee is the solution
What is it called when you add water to a reaction ? Hydrolysis
What does a monosaccharides + a monosaccharides make? A disaccharide
How is starch used? Plants use it an as an energy-storing carbohydrate
A fat contains which molecular components? Three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule
How are saturated fats saturated? With hydrogen
What type of fatty acids have double bonds? Unsaturated
What are enzymes ? Proteins
What do amino acids includ? A side group, a central carbon, a hydrogen atom, an amino group, an a carboxyl group
What are Nucleic acids ? Polymers or nucleotide monomers
What is the cytoplasm? The region that surrounds organelles but no found inside the nucleus
Why do phospholipids spontaneously form membranes when mixed with water? Because they have a hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water
What is the nuclear envelope composed of? A double membrane
Where does protein synthesis take place? On ribosomes
What does mRNA do? Transfer information from the nucleus to ribosomes
What does the endomembrane system include ? Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus? Protein modification
What are vacuoles? Membranous sacs
How can cellular respiration be described? The conversion of the energy stored in food molecules to energy stored in ATP
How can energy be defined as? The capacity to cause change
What does the principle of conversion of energy state? Energy cannot be created or destroyed
What compound directly provides energy for cellular work? ATP
How does ATP energize other molecules in cells? By transferring a phosphate group to those molecules
How do enzymes increase the rate of a reaction? By decreasing activation energy
How much percent of energy stored in food do humans convert for useful work? 34%
What is diffusion an example of? Passive transport
What happens to a plant cell in a hypotonic solution? Become turgid
Created by: itzy



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