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Pulmonary 2

UWORLD + FA Pulmonary Respiratory Review

What is the percentage of been a child affected with two carrier parents of a AR disease? 25%
Common opportunistic infection in transplant patients CMV
CMV infection is seen with: Intranuclear and Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies
Enveloped, dsDNA virus infection commonly in lung transplant patients CMV
CMV pneumonitis is commonly seen in _____________ transplant patients. Lung
Gram (+) diplococci; alpha-hemolysis; bile-acid soluble; Optochin-sensitive. Strep pneumoniae
What is the major virulence factor of S. pneumoniae? Polysaccharide capsule
What is the main function of POLYSACCHARIDE CAPSULE seen in S. pneumoniae? Prevents Phagocytosis and complement binding
What is the most important virulence factor of S. pneumoniae, and some other less important? Polysaccharide capsule is the most important virulence factor. Others: IgA protease, Adhesins, and pneumolysin.
"Quellung Reaction" Capsule swells and appear s as a halo around the blue-stained bacterial cells when specific anticapsular antibodies and methylene blue dye are added
What infectious agent is associated with the "Quellung Reaction"? Strep pneumoniae
A pulmonary embolism (PE) causes an increase in _________________. Dead Space Ventilation
What is a common cause of PE causing Hypoxemia? DVT
What is Dead Space? Inspired air that dies not participate in gas exchange
FRC (Forced Respiratory capacity) is increased in _____________ COPD
A _______ due to ____________, causes an ____________ A-a gradient, leading to the development of __________________. PE (Pulmonary Embolism); DVT (Deep Venous Thrombosis); Increased A-a gradient; HYPOXEMIA
Increase in Total Airway Resistance due to increased bronchoconstriction, describes? Asthma pathogenesis
H. influenzae is normal part of ___________________, and a common microbial agent causing ________________________________. Upper Respiratory tract flora; Otitis Media, Sinusitis, and Bronchitis
Non-typeable H. influenzae does not have__________________. Polysaccharide Capsule
gram negative coccobacillus, describes ___________________. H. influenzae
The Hib Vaccine: 1. Protein conjugated 2. Given to persons older than 2 years old 3. Induce --> anticapsular antibodies (humoral immune response) 4. Stimulates T-helper cell response to help activate B-cell antibody formation
Low arterial PO2 ---> Hypoxemia
What are the major 5 causes of HYPOXEMIA? 1. Alveolar hypoventilation 2. Low partial pressure of inspired oxygen 3. V/Q mismatch 4. Diffusion impairment 5. Right-to-Left shunting
What is the normal range of A-a gradient? 4 - 15 mmHg
What are the causes of Normal A-a gradient hypoxemia? 1. Hypoventilation 2. Low inspired oxygen
Low inspired oxygen conditions: 1. High altitude 2. Low FiO2
= (Patm - PH2O) x FiO2 PiO2
Neuromuscular and CNS disorders represent causes of _______________, leading to __________ A-a gradient causes _____________. Hypoventilation; Normal A-a gradient; Hypoxemia
Increased A-a gradient causes of Hypoxemia include: 1. Right to Left shunt 2. V/Q mismatch 3. Diffusion impairment
What conditions lead to a V/Q mismatch? PE, Atelectasis, PNA, Obstructive lung disease (COPD), Pneumothorax
Emphysema and Pulmonary fibrosis are categorized as _______________, leading to an ______________________, ultimately causing ________________. Diffusion impairment; Increased A-a gradient; Hypoxemia
Oxygen therapy responds good to ______________ and _______________. V/Q mismatch and Diffusion impairment
Right-to-Left shunt responds ____________ to oxygen therapy. Poorly
Anticholinergic agent and derivative of Atropine Ipratropium
Lung irritants then to affect the __________________, due to release of _________. Muscarinic receptors; ACh
What is the clinical use of Ipratropium? Obstructing Lung disease by blocking ACh of Muscarinic receptors, thus preventing Bronchoconstriction and decrease mucus secretion form tracheo bronchial submucosal glands
What are the two types of Pneumococcal Vaccine? 1. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide vaccine 2. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Which of the two kind of Pneumococcal vaccine has the strongest response? Pneumococcal CONJUGATE vaccine
The Pneumococcal Polysaccharide vaccine: - Capsular for 23 serotypes - Immune response LARGELY driven by B-cell activation - Not effective in child < 2 years old - Moderate antibody response
What are the features of the Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccine? - Capsular for 13 serotypes - Covalently attached to recombinant, inactivated diphtheria toxin - T-cell-mediated B-lymphocyte activation - Strong, effective immune response
Provides polysaccharide to be displayed by MHC and induces a stronger immunogenic response that involves T-cell-mediated B-lymphocyte activation. Mode of action of CONJUGATE vaccine
What is the summary of advantages of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide vaccine? 1. Decreases incidence of replacement strains due to lack o mucosal immunity
What are the 3 advantages of Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccine? 1. Increase efficacy in the elderly and children < 2 years old 2. Increase mucosal immunity seduces colonization (herd protection) 3. Increase immunogenic memory
What is the most common presentation of Cryptococcus neoformans in immunocompromised? Meningoencephalitis
How is C. neoformans meningoencephalitis diagnosed? India Ink stain of CSF
What is another less common form of C. neoformans infection? Cryptococcal Pneumonitis
How is Cryptococcal Pneumonitis diagnosed? Mucicarmine stain of Lung tissue and bronchoalveolar washings.
What is the description of Cryptococcus Neoformans? Round, budding yeast that have peripheral clearings and "halos" due to their tick Polysaccharide capsule
What cells are overly stimulated in Asthma Sensitization phase? TH2 cells
What cytokines are released by Asthma's stimulation of TH-2 cells? IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5
What cytokines are involved in class switingin in asthma? IL-4 together with IL-13 promote B-cell class switching for IgE synthesis, leading to mast cell priming
Which interleukin is responsible for activation of eosinophils? IL-5, secreted by TH-2 cells.
Excess of TH-2 cell activity relative to TH-1 activity Underlying principle of Asthma pathogenesis
What are the two main types of Occupational Asthma? 1. Immunologic: -- expose to a workplace aeroallergen causes TH-2 - mediated IgE formation. -- Cereals, latex, chemicals (formaldehyde, amine, dyes) 2. Non-immunologic -- due to workplace irritants that lead to denunciation of bronchial mucosa -- Commonly caused by large spills of chlorine and/or ammonia
Tissue Hypoxia produces or induce to: Specialized interstitial cells in the Renal CORTEX and MEDULLA to release EPO to stimulate the Bone marrow and increase RBC production.
What is intended goal of increased levels of EPO and RBC in tissue hypoxia? Improve the Oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
Secondary Polycythemia is seen in: Tissue hypoxia response to Increased EPO production, to increase RBC production and improve oxygen carrying capacity of blood
Specialized interstitial cells in the Renal CORTEX and MEDULLA to release EPO to stimulate the Bone marrow and increase RBC production. Secondary Polycythemia
Oxygen Saturation of < 92% Hypoxemia
SaO2 must be below _____________ to be known as ____________. 92% ; Hypoxemia
What are the two main mechanisms of elevated A-a gradient Hypoxemia? 1. Impairment diffusion of O2, by emphysematous destruction of the alveolar-capillary membrane 2. V/Q mismatch due to airway obstruction and air-trapping
"Scooped-out" expression is often related to: Expiration pattern seen in OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASES as it is graphed in the Flow-Volume Loop
Dynamic Hyperventilation Major cause of dyspnea and exercise limitation in COPD patients
What two type of populations are at higher risk of Aspiration Pneumonia? 1. Elderly with dementia 2. Patients with Hemiparesis may have dysphagia
Aspiration pneumonia is seen on CXR with what kinds of Lung Consolidation? Dependent lung Consolidation
What are the most DEPENDENT lung areas in the supine position? 1. Superior regions of the LOWER lobes 2. Posterior regions of the UPPER lobes
A person with a a DVT will have: - Normal ventilation (good inhaled dye uptake in lung imaging) - Abnormal/absent perfusion (poor/absent IV dye uptake in lung imaging)
What is the structure of MHC I? Heavy chain + B-2 - microglobulin
What type of antigens are usually involved in MHC I? Viruses, tumor proteins
What is the end result of MHC I involvement? Apoptosis of the presenting cell
MHC I is processes in the ________________. Cytoplasm; involves all nucleated cells
Alpha and Beta polypeptide chains are seen in __________. MHC II
What cells use the MHC II? APCs ( B-cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and Langerhan cells)
Where is the processing of MHC II? Antigens are phagocytosed and digested by lysosomes within which antigen gids to MHC II
What is a common cause of restrictive lung profile? Central obesity
Obesity produces a ___________ _______, which is the maximal expired air after a normal tidal expiration. Reduced ERV
A low/reduced ERV in obese patients lead to a _______________. Reduced Functional Respiratory Capacity (FRC)
Increased TLC and RV, + Reduced FEV1:FVC ratio is seen in: Emphysema
Trained athletes have increased ____________________________. FEV1, FVC, and TLC
Mechanical ventilation tends to produce: 1. Low Tidal Volumes 2. Compensatory incrase in Respiratory Rate
Increase in dead space is done by ________ in Respiratory rate and ______ in Tidal Volumes. Increase in Respiratory rate; Decrease in Tidal Volume
What is wasted ventilation? Breathing pattern that has a higher proportion of Dead Space on each breath
Minute Ventilation (VT) = (Tidal volume) x (Breathing rate)
Dead Space Equation: VD = VT x ( (PaCO2) - (PECO2)/ (PaCO2))
What are the bronchial mucosa features in chronic bronchitis? Thickened bronchial walls, lymphocytic infiltration, mucous glands enlargement, and patchy squamous metaplasia
Tobacco smoking is considered a __________________ risk factor Behavioral
What is the leading cause of chronic bronchitis? Tobacco smoking
Where are the 3 MC location for a Thoracentesis needle placement? 1. Below 6th rib in the MIDCLAVICULAR LINE 2. Below 8th rib along the MIDAXILLARY LINE 3. Below 10th rib along the PARAVERTEBRAL line
What is the risk of placing a needle below the 9th rib? Increases risk of penetrating abdominal structures (Liver)
In any kind of procedure, such as thoracocentesis, the needle should always be inserted? Along the UPPER BORDER of the rib in order to prevent intercostal vessel damage.
What are the main lung volume changes seen in Obstructive lung disease? Increase in RV, TLC, and RV:TLC ratio Decrease in FVC, FEV1, ant eh FEV1: FVC ratio
Volume in liters, left after maximal expiration Residual Volume (RV)
Restrictive Lung Disease volume patterns: 1. Reduced: TLC, RV, FVC, and FEV1 Increased or normal FEV1: FVC ratio
Mycolic acid is present in ______________ and _______________. Mycobacterium and Nocardia species
Mycolic acid is the source that causes _____________________ stain. Acid-fast
What is a common acid-fast stain? Carbolfuchsin
What saccharides are found in both, gram + and gram - organisms? 1. N-acetylmuramic acid and, 2. N-acetylglucosamine
Teichoic acid is found only in ___________________-bacteria. Gram Positive
LPS is on Gram Negative bacteria
Sterol component of FUNGAL membranes Ergosterol
Dimorphic fungus seen in tissue as round and oval yeast with thick walls and BROAD-based budding Blastomyces dermatitidis
What fungal organism is endemic of Southeastern USA (states east of the Mississippi RIver) Blastomyces dermatitidis
Blastomycosis primary organ of infection are teh _____________, and its disseminated to the ___________and ___________. Lungs; Skin and Bone
Aspergillus fumigatus histological description is: Septate hyphae that branch at 45-degree angles
Aspergillus fumigatus is found in ___________ form only. Mold
Small oval yeast with NARROW-based budding Candida albicans
Cryptococcus neoformans is described as: Round yeast with variables sizes and Narrow-based budding.
Coccidioides immitis is found in ___________________, which are ____________________________________. Spherules; round, encapsulated structures with many endospores.
Which organisms are seen with NARROW-BASED BUDDING? Cryptococcus neoformans , Candida albicans, and Paracoccidioides.
Histoplasma capsulatum? - dimorphic fungus; smaller than an RBC -Common in Central and Eastern USA along the Ohio and MIssissippi River Valleys
Rhizopus species are the MCC of_________________________. Mucormycosis
Broad-ribbon like hyphae with rare septions Rhizopus spps
What is the most important virulence factor of M. tuberculosis? Cord Factor
Long, serpentine cords due to cord factor present in cell wall. M. tuberculosis
What is the main function of Cord Factor in M. Tuberculosis? 1- Prevents macrophages from being BACTERICIDAL due to inhibition of phagolysosome acidification. 2- Leads to formation of CASEATING granulomas
Mycolic acid is _______________________________________________. Source of mycobacteria acid-fastness
Acid-fastness provides? Ability to retain stain in the presence of acid
Pleural effusions are classified as: Exudate or Transudate
What are the common causes of EXUDATE pleural effusion? 1. Infection (Pneumonia) 2. Malignancy 2. Rheumatologic disease
Exudates light criteria (3): 1. Pleural fluid PROTEIN / Serum PROTEIN ratio > 0.5 or, 2. Pleural fluid LDH / Serum LDH ratio >0.6 or, 3. Pleural fluid LDH > 2/3 upper limit of normal serum LDH
What conditions are associated with TRANSUDATE pleural effusion? 1. Heart failure 2. Cirrhosis (Hepatic hydrothorax) 3. Nephrotic syndrome
Alterations in Hydrostatic or Oncotic Pressure are associated with ___________________ pleural effusion. Transudate
Transudate pleural effusion are due to an ___________________ Hydrostatic pressure or a ________________ oncotic pressure. Increased---- Hydrostatic pressure Decreased ----- Oncotic pressure
Inflammation and increased capillary permeability, lead to the formation of _______________ pleural effusions. Exudative
Mesotheoloma: Neoplasm arising from mesothelial cells and strongly associated with Asbestos exposure.
Mesotheoloma is positively stained for: Cytokeratins and Calretinin
Cuboidal or flattened cells (epithelium-like) or spindle-cells (stromal-like), that stain (+) for cytokeratin, are found in ____________________. Mesotheoloma
Malignant Mesothelioma is seen with _____________________. Psammoma bodies
Asbestosis is the only pneumoconiosis that affects the _____________ lobes. Lower
Silicosis, Berylliosis, Coal Workers' pneumoconiosis affect the _______________ lung lobes. Upper
Person working at NASA headquarters is most likely to develop which kind of pneumoconiosis? Berylliosis
Another name for Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis is? Black lung disease
Coal Workers' pneumoconiosis increases the risk of developing ________ syndrome, which is _________________________________. Caplan Syndrome; Rheumatoid arthritis and pneumoconiosis with intrapulmonary nodules.
Berylliosis increases the risk of cancer and _____________. cor pulmonale
Mesothelioma: Malignancy associated with asbestos exposure. Not associated with smoking. May result in hemorrhagic exudate pleural effusion, pleural thickening. Histologically (+) for Calretinin and Psammoma bodies.
Silicosis is view histologically with: Nodes composed of WHORLED-COLLAGEN fibers and dust-laden macrophages.
What is Empyema? Thick, fibrinous exudate and pus; bacteria in pleural space; associated with Pneumonia
What is the best treatment option for VTE in pregnant women? LMWHs and Heparin
Which are the reasons for increased rate of VTE in pregnant women? 1. Anatomical changes: ---- Uterine compression of the IVC and Iliac veins 2. Physiologic Hypercoagulability: --- Increased production of clotting factors, decreased protein S, and Protein C resistance.
Why is Aspirin not recommended in pregnancy? Possible associated risk of Preeclampsia
What is the best type of IV fluids on a Septic Shock patient? 1. 0.9% (normal) saline or 2. Ringer Solution
IV fluids are classified in 3 main categories: Isotonic, Hypotonic, and Hypertonic
What are the Isotonic IV fluids? 1. 0.9% (normal) saline; 2. Lactated Ringer solution 3. Albumin (5% or 25%)
Volume resuscitation and shock are treated with which kind of solutions? Isotonic 0.9% (normal) saline and Lactated Ringer solution
3% solution is ____________________, and it is used in cases of _________________________________. Hypertonic; Severe, symptomatic hyponatremia
WHat are the 3 main Hypotonic IV fluid solutions? 1. Dextrose 5% in water 2. 0.45% (half-normal) saline 3. Dextrose 5% + 0.45% saline
Major serum inhibitor of Extracellular ELASTASE AAT-1 (alpha-1 antitrypsin)
AAT-1 deficiency is associated to ________________ emphysema. Panacinar
AAT-1 is released by _________________ and _________________. Neutrophils and Macrophages
What risk factor can dramatically accelerate the development of Panacinar emphysema in AAT-1 deficient patients? Tobacco smoking
Silicosis has internalized silica particles that ____________________, by disrupting phagocytosis and promoting __________________. Impair MACROPHAGE function; Apoptosis
Silicosis pathogenesis allow for ________________ infections, especially by. Mycobacterial; M. tuberculosis
Multiple, rounded nodules located in the upper lobes; seen with whorled collagen fiber patterns. Silicosis
___________________ is seen with ____________________________. Cystic Fibrosis ; Impaired mucociliary cleareance
What kind of emphysema is associated with chronic, heavy smoking? Centriacinar emphysema
What cells realease proteases (elastase) in centriacinar emphysema? Infiltrating neutrophils and alveolar macrophages
What cells are destroyed by elastase but eventually regenerated? Type 1 Pneumocytes are destroyed by proteases but regenerated by Type 2 Pneumocytes.
What areas are affected by the Ghon complex? 1. Lower lobe of lung 2. Ipsilateral hilar lymph node
The Ghon complex is associated with ________________ tuberculosis infection. Primary
What are the 3 fates of the Ghon complex? 1. Latent infection (dormant) 2. Resolution 3. Progressive Primary TB infection
Dormant bacteria containing a walled-off foci after primary TB infection, is knowns as? Latent TB infection
Secondary Tuberculosis is due to: Reactivated bacteria spread and cause extensive cavitation.
Military Tuberculosis? Failed immune response to Primary TB infection results in progressive lung consolidation and necrosis.
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is characterized by: InterMIXED areas of: 1. Dense fibrosis and normal lung 2. Focal fibroblastic proliferation 3. Honeycomb pattern most prominent in the periphery
Focal loss of type 1 pneumocytes and hyperplasia of type 2 pneumocytes is seen in: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
ARDS: cause the loss of Type I and Type II pneumocytes, and the focal fibroblastic hyperplasia
Why is the reason of hypercalcemia in Sarcoidosis? PTH-independent formation of 1,25-(OH)2 Vitamin D activated by MACROPHAGES ----> Intestinal absorption of calcium
What are some extrapulmonary findings of Sarcoidosis? 1. Skin lesion 2. Anterior and Posterior uveitis 3. Lofgren Syndrome
Sarcoidosis is seen with ___________________________ on imaging. Bilateral Hilar adenopathy
Non-CASEATING granulomas are seen in ________________. Sarcoidosis
What is the Train-of-Four (TOF) stimulation? Used during anesthesia to assess the degree of paralysis induced by NMJ-blocking agents
NMJ blockers are divided between ____________________ and _________________, to which the later is divided in 2 phases during TOF stimulation. NON-depolarizing; Depolarizing
What is the most common depolarizing NMJ blocker used in TOF stimulation? Succynilcholine
Vecuronium, Atracurium, and Gantacurium are all _____________ agents. Non-depolarizing NMJ blockers
The phase ____ of Depolarizing agents resembles the effect seen in nondepolarizing agents during TOF stimulation. Phase II
What are the Depending lung segments while supine? 1. Posterior segments of Upper lobes 2. Superior segments of Lower lobes
The upright position has the __________________ as the most dependent segments. Basilar segments
A person in the prone position has the ______________ and ___________ as the most dependent segments. Middle lobe and Lingula
Influenza virus is associated with? Hemagluttin antibodies
Anti-Hemagglutinin antibodies are the major reason for? Immunity against annual Influenza virus
What is the tetrad of symptoms associated with Septic Shock? 1. Fever, 2. Leukocytosis, 3. Tachycardia, 4 . Hypotension
Septic shock may lead to ____________________________, which would impair the tissue __________________, causing a decrease in ________________________, overall leading to ________________. End-organ HYPOPERFUSION; oxygenation; oxidative phosphorylation; ;Lactic acidosis.
Honeycomb pattern in lung periphery Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Candida albicans is part of the normal flora of the______________. GI tract and skin
A c. albican contaminated sputum usually depicts a ___________ rather than a pulmonary infection . Oral infection
Round, oval, narrow-budding yeast that forms true hyphae (Germ tubes) at body temperature (37C). Candida albicans
Dichotomous, branching hyphae; infects previous lung cavitations. Aspergillus fumigatus
Healthy people is _________________-limited, which means? Perfusion-limited; alveolar and capillary partial pressures are EQUAL
Equal alveolar and capillary partial pressures Perfusion-limited
Diffusion-limited is based on ___________ differences in the alveolar and capillary partial pressures. PO2
Large gradient between alveolar and capillary PO2? Diffusion-limited
What are common causes of Diffusion-limited? Pathological: Emphysema and Pulmonary fibrosis. Non-pathological: Exercise
What is the normal values of PO2 at the following? Traquea, Alveoli, Capillary (Venous, and Arterial): Traquea ----> 150 mmHg Alveolar ----> 104 mmHg Capillary (venous) -----> 40 mmHg Capillary (arterial) ----> 70 mmHg
What are the normal values of PCO2? Trachea ----> 0 mmHg Alveoli ---> 40 mmHg Capillary (venous) -----> 45 mmHg Capillary (arterial) ----> 40 mmHg
Alveoli fill with fluid (Pneumonia, Pulmonary edema) or Collapse (atelectasis) and alveolar ventilation is essentially zero. Physiological INTRAPULMONARY SHUNTING
What are normal pulmonary changes seen with AGING? 1. INCREASED: ----- Lung compliance due to loss of elastic recoil ----- Greatly increased Residual Volume (RV) 2. DECREASED: --- Chest wall compliance and FVC 3. Unchanged Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
What is the best way to prevent neonatal GBS disorders? INTRAPARTUM antibiotics (ampicillin and penicillin)
What are some of the conditions seen with Group B Strep colonization, in case it was not prevented? Neonatal GBS sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis
How does Left-sided HF affect the lung? L-sided HF --> accumulation of fluid or edema in pulmonary interstitium --> Lungs become heavy and still, which leads to: 1. Restriction of Inspiratory expansion 2. Decreased LUNG COMPLIANCE.
A decrease in lung compliance is often seen in _______________. Left-sided Heart Failure
Systemic sclerosis is a common underlying cause of the development of ________________________. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Proliferation of T-cells release cytokines (TGF-B) and consequently cause progressive thickening and occlusion of the small and medium-sized PULMONARY arteries/arterioles. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Right sided HF symptoms + Progressive dyspnea and Loud pulmonic S2 component (Loud P2). Dx? Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Right-sided HF symptoms are: Hepatomegaly, Peripheral edema, and JVD.
What is the triad of symptoms presented in Fat Embolism Syndrome? Respiratory distress, Neurologic dysfuntion, and Petechial rash
Fat Embolism Syndrome (FES) most commonly results from: The release of FAT GLOBULES from the BONE MARROW following a long-bone or pelvic bone fracture.
Patient with dyspnea, few days after suffering a femur fracture. Suspect dx? Fat Embolism Syndrome
What are hamartomas? Most common type of benign lung tumor
What are the most common benign lung tumors? Hamartomas
Asymptomatic peripherally located "coin lesion" in patients between 50-60 years old. Hamartomas
What is the composition of hamartomas? Disorganized CARTILAGE and adipose tissue
Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with ____________--- Squamous "Keratin" pearls
Small cell lung cancer is positive for Neuroendocrine markers
Common variant of adenocarcinoma Bronchioalveolar carcinoma
A Bronchioalveolar carcinoma is located at the lung's ___________, and is view in the CXR as and peripheral mass or _____________________. Periphery; Pneumonia-like consolidation
What is the key characteristic of Bronchoalveolar carcinoma? The distribution: It spreads along the ALVEOLAR SEPTAE without vascular or stromal invasion.
What is Atopic (Extrinsic) asthma? Asthma symptoms in a young patients, that are UNRELATED to ingestion of Aspirin, pulmonary infections, irritants, and/or exercise.
What are some common findings in Atopic (extrinsic) Asthma? 1. Charcot- Leyden Crystals 2. Eosinophils
TH2 secretes IL-5 which caused recruitment of _____________. Eosinophils
Non-caseating granulomas ------ Sarcoidosis
APCs produce ___________, which then stimulates the differentiation of _________________. IL-12 ---> differentiation of TH1 CD4 T-cells
After initial TH1 stimulation, these cells secrete ___________ and __________. What do each do? IL-12 ---> Increase Th1 differentiation INF-gamma ---> Macrophage activation
Why is supplemental O2 therapy not recommended for COPD patients? It can further increase the V/Q mismatch leading to a RAPID development of confusion and depressed consciousness.
Energy expended during respiration and comprises the work required to overcome both elastic and airflow resistance. Work of Breathing
Elastic Resistance is defined as: Opposition to lung expnasion
What type of lung disease profile increase the Elastic resistance? Restrictive Lung Disease
Elastic Resistance is increased with: Higher tidal volumes
Airflow resistance is defined as: Opposition of airflow created by limited airway diameter and turbulent flow.
What condition lead to an elevation of airflow resistance? Increased in higher respiratory rates and low lung volumes
Why doe higher respiratory rates and low lung volumes increase the airflow resistance? Increased Respiratory Rate ----> Increased Turbulent Flow Low Lung Volumes -------> Reduced diameter
Airflow is increased in ______________ lung diseases. Obstructive
Created by: rakomi



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