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ch 14

what is speciation? the process in which one species splits into two or more species
what are species ? a group of populations whose members have the potential to inbreed with one another in nature and produce fertile offspring
what is a reproductive barrier? anything that prevents individuals of closely related species from interbreeding
What is a prezygotic barrier ( definition)? prevention of mating or fertilization between species
how can postzygotic barriers even happen? only operate if interspecies mating occurs and hybrid zygotes forms
what are examples of prezygotic barriers ? temporal isolation- species are active different seasons . habitat isolation- species live in different places . behavioral isolation- they act differently. gametic isolation- sex cells are impossible to form a zygote.
what are examples post zygotic barriers? reduced hybrid viability - low chance of hybrid staying alive. reduced hybrid fertility- low chance of hybrid reproducing offspring
How can species form? by allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation
What is allopathic speciation? The initial block of gene flow is a geographic barrier, new species arise from two different geographic locations
What is sympatric speciation? No geographic isolation, new species arises within the same geographic area as its parent species
What is polyploidy? Can reduce gene flow in sympatric populations, it’s a process in which species arise from an accident during cell division that results in an extra set of chromosomes, habitat complexity, and sexual selection
Where does the evidence for evolution come from? Fossil records
What is macroevolution? Evolutionary change above the species level and includes the impact of mass extinction on the diversity of life and the origins of key adaptations
What is the geologic time scale? It divides Earths history into a consistent sequence of geologic periods
What is radiometric dating? A method based on the decay of radioactive isotopes to learn the ages of rocks and fossils
What does the theory of plate tectonics state? The continents and sea floors form a thin outer layer of solid rock, the crust, divided into a giant irregular shaped plates that float atop the mantle, a mass of hot material
What is the process of continental drift? Movements in the mantle that cause the plates to move , creates diversity in life
What is biogeography? The study of the past and present distribution of organisms
What are exaptations? Structures that evolve in one context but become useful for another function ex: feathers
What is systematics? It includes taxonomy and focuses on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships
What is convergent evolution? unrelatedly species to evolve similar characteristics under similar environmental conditions
If two species branch from a common ancestor what does this mean in terms of DNA? DNA sequences should be the same
What are cladistics ? Organisms grouped by common ancestry
What is a clade? Consists of an ancestral species and all its evolutionary descendants and forms a distinct branch in the tree of life
What does the three domain system consist of? Two domains of prokaryotes ( bacteria and archea) One domain of eukaryotes ( Eukarya)
Created by: itzy