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Micro-Unit 3/4 Exam

QuestionAnswer
DNA Structure: basic structure is the ____ in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic same
DNA structure: no histones, contain exons, no introns prokaryotes
DNA that codes for something; a coding region of a gene that contains the information required to encode a protein; found in pro and euk exons
space filling DNA introns
DNA structure: DNA wrapped around histones (proteins) to keep it organized, contain exons and introns eukaryotes
chromosome number in prokaryotes only one
chromosome number in eukaryotes more than one
chromosome arrangement: prokaryotes, eukaryotes prokaryotes = circular; eukaryotes = linear
genetic processes (replication, transcription, translation): all three processes basically the same except for _____, ______, and _____ timing, efficiency, and location
two replication forks; bidirectional prokaryotes
one replication fork; proceeds in one direction from one end of chromosome to the other eukaryotes
have operons; _____ genes for a similar purpose together; occurs in cytoplasm (no nucleus) transcription, prokaryote
no operons; occurs in nucleus; post ____-tional editing (edits mRNA after _____) transcription, eukaryotes
occurs in cytoplasm; occurs simultaneously with transcription translation, prokaryotes
occurs in cytoplasm; second of two step process (transcription makes mRNA in nucleus then it must exit into cytoplasm where ______ occurs) translation, eukaryotes
3 types of horizontal gene transfer conjugation, transformation, transduction (natural)/ transfection (artificial)
horizontal gene transfer: direct contact (pili), plasmids, natural; bacteria proactively seeking genetic variation for survival conjugation
horizontal gene transfer: no direct contact (no pili), plasmid (naked DNA), natural, artificial; bacteria proactively seeking genetic variation for survival transformation
horizontal gene transfer: no direct contact (no pili), no plasmid; bacteria forced into variation by virus transduction (natural)/ transfection (artificial)
outcomes of horizontal gene transfer no positive or negative impact; positive impact; negative impact
transfer of genes b/w two organisms in the same generation horizontal gene transfer
if DNA transferred from first bacteria could be used in the second bacteria positive impact of horizontal gene transfer
DNA transferred from first bacteria blocked a gene in the second bacteria and stopped second bacteria from working properly negative impact of horizontal gene transfer
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes chromosome
each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division; each contains a double helix of DNA chromatids
all of the DNA found in an organism; one complete copy of the genetic information in a cell genome
a segment of DNA independent of the chromosomes and capable of replication, occurring in bacteria and yeast: used in recombinant DNA procedures to transfer genetic material from one cell to another plasmid
a molecular structure that is formed during the transcription of DNA when a limited portion of the DNA double strand is unwound; formed by the RNA Polymerase when the enzyme binds with a promoter transcription bubble
a small piece of DNA that can move from one DNA molecule to another; can jump into different places of the genome; "jumping genes", "jumping DNA" transposons
the science of using living organisms or the products of living organisms for the benefit of humans and their surroundings biotechnology
examples of biotechnology (genetic engineering) food (bread, cheese, yogurt), medications (insulin into bacteria to create more insulin), plants (inserting gene for pest resistance), oil spills (bacteria to clean up/ eat oil)
body’s defense mechanism immunity
type of immunity? natural immunity---born with it; not specific innate immunity
type of immunity? specific – creates a specific response to a specific target adaptive immunity
3 major lines of defense/steps in immunity barriers, inflammatory response, adaptive immunity (humoral response, cell mediated response)
immunity type? defense type? skin (sweat--salts + oils, normal flora) innate, barrier
immunity type? defense type? line all portals of entry of body, glycoproteins (sticky to trap microbes), natural lysozymes, natural antibodies innate, mucous membranes
blood flows at site of entry; edema, heat, blood cells enter the area inflammation
what causes redness during inflammatory response? RBCs
what causes clotting to seal damaged area during inflammatory response? platelets
4 nonspecific WBCs in innate immunity? their mode of action? neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, monocytes; phagocytosis
nonspecific chemicals of innate immunity CCHIP; cytokines (cell communication), compliment (protein markers of foreign bodies until WBC can kill it), histamines, interferons, pyrogenic chemicals
specific response to a specific target; any substance that causes antibody formation antigen (aka immunogen)
adaptive immunity involves what WBC? lymphocytes
adaptive immunity: humoral response involves what type of WBC? B lymphocytes
what do B lymphocytes produce? antibodies
basic structure of antibodies Y-shaped, Fc and Fv region (fragment, constant, variable)
5 classes of antibodies MADGE; IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE
targets microbes in body fluids; combat antigens antibodies
adaptive immunity: cell-mediated response involves what type of WBC? T lymphocytes
types of T lymphocytes T Helper cells, Cytotoxic T cells
cell-mediated response targets microbes in ____? tissue
T cells move through tissues to go after microbes diapedesis
type of immune response: occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response natural active
type of immune response: fetus in utero, infants from mothers breast milk natural passive
type of immune response: vaccination artificial active
type of immune response: antitoxin artificial passive
disorders of the immune system: category(ies) that are hyper- or overly-sensitive hypersensitivity, autoimmune
allergan instead of antigen; basophils digest allergen and release histamines; within minutes you have an IgE response; can be local or systemic Hypersensitivity Type I – anaphylactic
immune hypersensitivity to cells that are normal human cells; blood group (ABO’s system, Rh system +/-), drug induced (thrombocyte purpura, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia) Hypersensitivity Type II – cytotoxic
starts with a normal antibody response, then the antibody/ antigen complex flows through the blood and gets lodged in the kidney -- Glomerular nephritis Hypersensitivity Type III - immune complex
at the end of a normal cell mediated response the memory cells become active too soon and over produce cytotoxins (contact dermatitis; poison ivy, poison oak) Hypersensitivity Type IV - delayed cytotoxic response
loss of self tolerance (hypersensitivity to own cells) Autoimmune disorders
mutated Ab’s attach normal self antigen (Myasthenia gravis, Graves disease, Rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythema, Multiple sclerosis, Type II Diabetes) cytotoxic autoimmune disorder
T cells triggered to make s abnormal antibodies (Type I diabetes, graft versus host, Psoriasis) Cell mediated autoimmune disorder
a group of conditions resulting from inflammation and tissue damage induced in tissues where immune complexes are formed or deposited Immune complex autoimmune disorder
disorders of the immune system: category(ies) that are under-sensitive immunodeficiency
can occur as part of an infection or be induced to suppress the immune system Immunodeficiency, immunosuppression
Created by: nurse savage