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Ch 13 pt2 quiz

What is one example of natural selection? Pesticide resistance, some insects are able to survive pesticides thus making them "fit" for their environment
what is mutation? The ultimate source of genetic variation that serves as raw material for evolution
Can mutations be passed on to offspring? No only mutations in cells that produce gametes can be passed to offspring and affect a populations genetic variability
What are some pros of mutations? Can improve adaptation of an individual to its environment, enhance reproductive success, increase genetic variation
How do mutations in prokaryotes work? Quickly creates genetic variation in a population ( bacteria multiply fast)
What are three examples of genetic variation? Independent assortment, crossing over, and random fertilization
What is a population? A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreeds
What does the gene pool consist of? All copies of every type of allele ( genes) in all members of the population. All the gene possibilities there is
What is the allele frequency equation? P + q = 1
What is the genotype frequency equation? P^2 +2pq + q^2 = 1
What is the p^2 indicate ? Dominant homozygous allele
What does 2pq indicate ? Heterozygous alleles
What does the q^2 indicate? Recessive homozygous alleles
What is microevolution ? Generation to generation change in allele frequencies of a population
What are the three main causes of evolutionary change? Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow
Why is natural selection the most important in evolutionary change ? It is the only process that promotes adaptation
What is genetic drift? Change in the gene pool of a small population due to chance
What is the bottleneck effect? Example of genetic drift, drastic reduction in population size that leads to a decreased genetic variation
What is the founder effect? Example of genetic drift, fee individuals colonize an empty habitat which causes high frequency of certain disorders, less genetic variation to work with
What is gene flow? A source of evolutionary change, the genetic exchange of another population, could either be gain or loss of alleles
What is relative fitness? The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation
What is sexual selection ? A form of natural selection , certain traits attract mates
What is sexual dimorphism? A distinction in appearance between males and females. Males traits are more noticeable while females are dull and brown
What is directional selection? Shifts the overall makeup of a population by choosing one extreme phenotype over another
What is disruptive selection? Leads to a balance of two or more opposites phenotypes in a population?
What is stabilizing selection? Most common, happens in stable environments , favors intermediate phenotypes
Created by: itzy