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ch 8// exam 2 review

What is the difference between asexual vs sexual reproduction ? Asexual reproduction is the reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction needs gametes
what is the difference between chromosomes vs chromatids? A chromosome is made up of two chromatids which are joined by the centromere
what are gametes? A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote
What is metastasis? spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site
what is the cell cycle ? Interphase (G1, G2 and S phase), M phase ( mitosis), and cytokinesis
what are sister chromatids ? replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
what is the centromere? centralized region joining two sister chromatids
What is mitosis ? cell division that forms two new cells, each has the same number of chromosomes
What happens during Interphase ? period in cell cycle when cell is not dividing. cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. accounts for 90% of cell cycle.
What happens during Prophase? first phase of cell division, chromatin is condensing and mitotic spindle begins to form
What happens during Metaphase? second phase of cell division, spindle is complete and the chromosomes are all aligned at the metaphase plate.
What happens during Anaphase? third phase of cell division , chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
What happens during Telephase/ cytokensis? final phase of cell division, daughter cells are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun
what are nondisjunctions? pair of homologous chromosomes fail to separate during Meiosis 1 or sister chromatids fail to separate during Meiosis 2.
What are examples of nondisjunction? Down syndrome ( extra chromosome)
What are the differences between Meiosis and Mitosis? Meiosis produces gamates ( four haploid cells), crossing over occurs. Mitosis produces new somatic cells ( 2 diploids)
what is the cleavage forrow ? first sign of cleavage in an animal cell
What is the cell plate? double membrane across midline of a dividing plant cell, between the new cells that forms during cytokinesis
What is the cell cycle control system? -there is a checkpoint at the end of each phase of cell cycle. , make sure organelles were replicated properly, make sure DNA was replicated properly , check that spindle fibers are ready to pull DNA during anaphase
what are benign tumors? mass of abnormal cells that remains at site of origin
What are malignant tumors? cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair function of one or more organs
What are somatic cells? Any cell in a multicellular organism that is not a gamete
What are autosomes? non-sex chromosomes; chromosomes 1-22 in humans
What is a haploid? a cell with only one complete set of chromosomes
what are some examples of genetic variation? Independent assortment, crossover , and random fertilization
what is independent assortment ? random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
What is a diploid? cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes (homologous pairs of each chromosome) or twice the haploid number (2n)
Created by: itzy
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