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Physical Science: 8th Grade: Chapter 3

____ is the amount of mass per unit volume of a material. Density
The equation for density is: ____/volume mass
If you know any two values in the density equation, you can calculate the third value. For example, if you know an object’s mass and density, you can calculate the object’s ___. volume
Density depends on the ___ of which an object is made, not the size of the object. material
The density of a material depends on the ___ of the particles (such as atoms or molecules) that make up the material. mass
The more massive the particles, the ___ the density of the material. higher
The density of a material depends on the ___ between the particles in the material. distance
The farther apart the particles, the ___ the density of the material. lower
Because the distance between particles of a gas increases as the gas is heated, the density of a gas ___ as it is heated. decreases
The density of a gas changes greatly as its ___ changes. temperature
To measure the density of an object, you first need to measure both its mass and its ___. volume
The mass of an object can be measured with a ___. balance
To measure the mass of a substance that requires a container, subtract the mass of the ___ ___ from the total mass. empty container
The volume of a liquid can be measured with a ___ ___. graduated cylinder
A ___ ___ is a six-faced block in which all faces are rectangular. rectangular solid
The volume of a rectangular solid is equal to its length multiplied by its width multiplied by its ___. height
For an object with an irregular shape, one way to measure its volume is to place it in aliquid and measure the volume of liquid the object ___, or pushes aside. displaces
Once you have measured the mass and volume of an object or material, you can calculate its ___ by dividing its mass by its volume. density
Density is a physical property, which means that you can measure it without changing the___ of the material whose density is being measured. composition
A ___ is a material that can flow and has no definite shape. fluid
___ and gases are fluids. Liquids
Fluids can exert ___. forces
___ is the force per unit of area applied on the surface of an object. Pressure
Pressure depends on the area over which a force is exerted. If the area increases, thepressure ___. decreases
Pressure depends on the size of the force. When ___ increases, pressure also increases. force
The equation for pressure is P = force/_____ area
The SI unit of pressure is the ___, abbreviated Pa. pascal
A pressure of 1 Pa is equal to a force of1 N applied over an ___ of 1 m2 area
For any liquid in a container of any shape, the pressure depends only on the height of the ___ of liquid above the surface where you measure the pressure. column
The deeper underwater you go, the ___ the pressure is on you. greater
Pressure increases with depth because as you go deeper, the column of water above you gets ___. taller
In a fluid, pressure is exerted on all points on the outside of an object in a direction ___ to the surface of the object at that point. perpendicular
A gas, like any ___, exerts pressure on an object. fluid
Pressure depends on the ___ of thegas above the object. height
___ ___ is the force exerted per unit area by air particles. Atmospheric pressure
As you climb, or increase your elevation, atmospheric pressure ___. decreases
Atmospheric pressure at sea level is caused by a large weight of gas, but is difficult to notice because there is an equal, ___ pressure pushing out from the inside of your body. internal
The ___ ___ is the net upward force exerted on an object in a fluid by the surrounding fluid. buoyant force
In a fluid, there is no net ___ force on an object caused by pressure from the fluid. horizontal
Because in a fluid, pressure increases with depth, the force of the fluid pushing up on the bottom of an object is always ___ than the force of the fluid pushing down on the top of the same object. greater
The size of the ___ force does not depend on depth. buoyant
___ ___ states that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid the object displaces. Archimedes’ principle
Whether an object sinks or floats depends on the relative size of the buoyant force on theobject and the ___ of the object. weight
If the buoyant force on an object is less than the object’s weight, the net force on the object is ___ and the object will accelerate downward, or sink. downward
When an object is ___, it is not accelerating vertically, which means that the upward (or buoyant) force and the downward forces on it are the same. floating
An object will float if it is less dense than the ___ around it. fluid
Metal boats float because they contain ___, which makes their total density less than the water around them. air
A ___ is an instrument that measures the density of a fluid. hydrometer
In a less dense fluid, a hydrometer displaces more fluid and floats ___ than in a denser fluid. lower
In a denser fluid, a hydrometer displaces less fluid and floats ___. higher
Like any fluid, air exerts ___ on things around it. pressure
If the buoyant force due to air pressure on an object is large enough, the object can ___ in air. float
Helium gas is ___ dense than nitrogen gas and oxygen gas, which are the main components of air. less
When a balloon is filled with helium, it is less dense than the air around it, and so the balloon ___. floats
Whether a hot-air balloon rises or falls can be controlled by changing the density of the ___ inside the balloon. air
Using a burner to heat the air in a hot-air balloon causes those air molecules to move___ ___ from each other, so that air becomes less dense than the air around theballoon. farther apart
When the air in a hot-air balloon ___, it becomes as dense as the air around the balloon. The total density of the hot-air balloon is then greater than the air around it, and the balloon sinks. cools
Created by: jnosik