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L1 VariationGenetics

Definitions for third sections of Sci 1.9 re variation etc

Cultivar plant variety with special features produced by selective breeding.
Genetic variation inherited differences between individuals in a population resulting from mutation, crossover, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis and the union of different haploid cells (gametes) at fertilisation.
Hybrid an organism produced by a cross between unlike parents.
Inbreeding sexual reproduction involving the mating of closely related parents.
Hereditary describes materials and or information that are passed on from one generation to another. Not all hereditary information is genetic.
Heredity transmission of traits from one generation to another.
Inherit to receive (a genetic character) by the transmission of hereditary factors
Mutagen physical or chemical agents that causes mutations eg x-ray, UV radiation, nuclear exposure.
Mutant organism with a mutant gene that is expressed in the phenotype eg white-eyed fruit fly.
Mutation an altered gene or the process of change in a gene. It happens as there is a change in the base sequence of the DNA due to addition, deletion or substitution of a base. It may lead to a new allele.
Population group of organisms of the same species sharing the same gene pool.
Gene pool All the possible alleles in a population for a particular gene. eg eye colour gene in the human population can include a range of alleles - black, brown, gray, hazel, green, blue.
Selective breeding a deliberate breeding process using chosen parents with desirable traits to increase the likelihood of the offspring having those desirable traits or combination of traits.
Somatic cell a normal body cell with diploid number of chromosomes. Any changes (mutations) to these cells are not passed on.
Variation differences between the phenotype and or genotype of individuals in a group not linked by age or sex. They can be discrete (either or type eg roll tongue or not) or continuous (eg heights, foot size) and follow a bell shaped distribution curve.
gametic cell A sex cell. If a mutation occurs here and used to produce offspring, mutations can be passed onto next generation(s).
natural selection process of 'fittest' surviving due to competition for resources and other selection pressures selecting favourable phenotypes. Individuals with favourable phenotypes have more offspring and over time a shift in the gene pool occurs.
Created by: kjsime