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L1 Genetics

definitions for genetics AS90944

TermDefinition
Allele alternative forms (version) of a gene (with different sequences of nucleotides that can occupy the same locus)
Characteristic refers to a trait eg hair colour or foot size
Chromatid daughter strand of a duplicated (copied) chromosome, still joined at the centromere.
Chromosome long thread-like structures in the cell nucleus that carry genetic information coded as the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule.
Complementary base pairing The strands in a DNA molecule are held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs (Adenine always bonds with thymine (A-T), and guanine with cytosine (G-C))
Crossing over exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis and increases genetic variation by creating new allele combinations on a chromosome.
Diploid (2n) Cells (mostly body) which have 2 copies of each chromosome (one set from each parent)
DNA Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. Made up of nucleotides (sugar – phosphate backbone with one nitrogenous base (either A, T, G or C) attached to the sugar molecule. Form long strands, double helix with rungs joining bases in complementary fashion. Code.
DNA replication copying from a template (DNA) that takes place before cells can divide. The DNA unzips, free nucleotides will join to the exposed strands in complementary base pairing fashion (A-T, C-G) to produce two identical DNA semi-conservative strands.
Fertilisation union or fusion of two sex cells (gametes) to produce a zygote.
Gamete haploid (n) sex cell (contains one set of chromosomes obtained via meiosis). Most organisms produce two kinds that are different (ie male (sperm/pollen) and female (ova/ovule)).
Gene refers to the unit of inheritance that occupies a particular position (locus) on a chromosome. (There are many different genes along one chromosome).
Genetic code Encoded in DNA: sequences of nucleotides in triplets (codons) of messenger RNA that specify the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
Genetic variation inherited differences between individuals in a population resulting from mutation, crossover, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis and the union of different haploid cells (gametes) at fertilisation.
Gonads organs in animals which produce the gametes, ie testes in males and ovaries in females.
Haploid the number for one set of chromosomes. Haploid gametes are produced by meiosis so when fertilisation occurs between two gametes, a diploid number of chromosomes is restored.
Homologous chromosomes A pair of chromosomes, one of which is inherited from each parent. (Each pair have the same chromosome length, centromere position and banding pattern – these indicate the sequence of genes. The alleles may be different).
Independent Assortment the random distribution of maternal and paternal chromosomes into the gametes. Genes will assort independently if they are located on different chromosomes.
Inherit to receive (a genetic character) by the transmission of hereditary factors
Karyotype describes the structure of a set of chromosomes as viewed through a light microscope. Often illustrated with diagrams showing pairs of chromosomes arranged from largest to smallest.
Locus position that a gene occupies on a chromosome or in a segment of DNA.
Meiosis the type of cell division for producing gametes with haploid number of chromosomes.
Mitosis the type of cell division for growth and repair of body cells. They have a diploid number of chromosomes. The daughter cells produced are genetically identical to each other and the original parent cell.
Nucleotide one of the monomers from which nucleic acid polymers are constructed. Each nucleotide is made up of a sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base (A, C, T, G)
Peptide Compound containing two or more amino acids bonded together using a peptide bond. A complete peptide molecule is called a protein.
Polypeptide chain a polymer made up of amino acids – often several hundred of them – joined by covalent peptide bonds. Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide chains organised into a specific structure/shape.
Protein large molecule made up of one or more polypeptide chains containing amino acids arranged in a particular sequence as determined by the genetic code.
Semi-conservative term used to describe replicated DNA strands where one strand is the original and the other is a complementary copy termed daughter strand.
Sexual reproduction the process of producing new offspring from the fusion of male and female gametes produced by meiosis. This increases genetic variation.
Sperm motile male sex cell (gamete) in animals. Has haploid number of chromosomes.
Trait observable characteristic in an organism, influenced by heredity.
Triplet sequence of three bases in the DNA that code for a particular amino acid.
Variation differences between the phenotype and or genotype of individuals in a group not linked by age or sex. They can be discrete (either or type eg roll tongue or not) or continuous (eg heights, foot size) and follow a bell shaped distribution curve.
Zygote a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes.
Created by: kjsime