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Mental Health

Mental Health/Illness and Theories/Therapies

The quantitative study of the distribution of mental disorders in human populations is called Epidemiology
A multiaxial psychiatric assessment system DSM-IV-TR
Current information suggests that the most disabling mental disorders are the result of Biological influences
Most coverage for mental disorders is _______ to coverage for medical disorders Inferior
Regarding individuals with mental disorders, distress refers to a painful symptom, and disability refers to Impairment in important areas of functioning.
While caring for a client who is very ill with a mental disorder, the nurse wonders if the client has always been so regressed or if he has functioned at a higher level in the recent past. The best way to obtain this information would be to Look at axis V of the client's DSM-IV-TR sheet.
When talking about diagnosis of a mental disorder, culture may cause variations in Symptoms for each clinical disorder.
The prevalence rate over a 12-month period for substance abuse is greater than The prevalence rate for psychotic disorders.
Mental illnesses recognized across cultures include schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
When planning care for a specific client, of what significance to the psychiatric nurse is the fact that the DSM-IV-TR is multiaxial? Multiple aspects of client functioning and problems are reported.
A nurse conducting research is seeking data about outcomes for depressed patients who have been treated with electroconvulsive therapy. The nurse is engaged in the field of clinical epidemiology
A client tells the mental health nurse "I am terribly frightened! I hear whispering that someone is going to kill me." Which criterion of mental health can the nurse assess as lacking? Appraisal of reality.
An important concept for nurses to remember when planning care for clients is that All clients have areas of strength on which to build.
A nurse suspects that a client has a personality disorder in addition to displaying symptoms of a mood disorder. To determine whether these observations are correct, the nurse could look in the client's medical record on the DSM-IV-TR Axis II
A nursing diagnosis for a client with a psychiatric disorder serves the purpose of Providing a framework for selecting nursing interventions.
The mental health or mental illness of a particular client can best be assessed by considering Placement on a continuum from healthy to psychotic.
Mental illness changes with ______, ________, __________, and _________. Culture, time in history, political system, group defining it.
The difficulty with defining mental illness through a particular behavior that is unacceptable to society is that This does not tell us what behavior a society should accept.
A nursing student new to psychiatric nursing asks a peer what resource she can use to figure out which symptoms are part of the picture of a specific psychiatric disorder, what would the best answer be? DSM-IV-TR
Why is it important for the nurse to be aware of the multiple factors that can influence an individual's mental health? A holistic nursing assessment requires this kind of awarness.
Epidemiological studies contribute to improvements in care for individuals with mental disorders by Identifying risk factors that contribute to the development of a disorder.
The ________diagnosis impacts the choice of medical treatment, whereas the ________ diagnosis offers a framework for identifying interventions for phenomena a client is experiencing. DSM-IV-TR, nursing
The DSM-IV-TR is used to diagnose a psychiatric disorder
A nursing diagnosis facilitates the identification of Appropriate nursing interventions to address the specific difficulties of a client with a mental health disorder.
An important difference between the developmental theories of Freud and Erikson is Erikson viewed individual growth in terms of social setting.
Maslow's theory of human needs has provided nursing with a framework for holistic assessment
The premise underlying behavioral therapy is Behavior is learned and can be modified.
The nurse planning care for a 14-year-old needs to take into account that the developmental task of adolescence is to achieve identity
Sullivan viewed anxiety as Any painful feeling or emotion arising from social insecurity.
A cognitive therapist would help a client restructure the thought "I am stupid!" to "What I did was stupid."
The nurse providing anticipatory guidance to the mother of a toddler should advise that childhood temper tantrums are best handled by Ignoring the tantrum and giving attention when the child acts appropriately.
Freud believed that individuals cope with anxiety by using defense mechanisms
Differentiate between the art and science of nursing. The art is the care, compassion, and advocacy component, and the science is the applied knowledge base.
What kind of therapy would be best suited for dysfunctional grieving? Interpersonal Therapy
One implication of Freud's theory of the unconscious on psychiatric mental health nursing is related to the consideration that conscious and unconscious influences can help nurses better understand The root causes of client suffering.
Freud describes the conscious as the part of the mind that contains All material that the person is aware of at any one time.
According to Freud, the id Is the source of all drives, instincts, and reflexes
According to Harry Stack Sullivan, which of the following is used today in virtually all residential and day hospital settings? A psychotherapeutic environment.
The nurse is working with a client who has very low self-esteem and is distrustful of unit staff. The client is facing role transition from wife to wife and mother. According to Maslow's theory, the priority problem for the nurse to address is Establishing trust with the client.
One of the values of Maslow's model for nursing care is that it helps the nurse Identify that human potential and the client’s strengths are key to building nurse-client relationships
Role playing is associated with which type of therapy? Modeling
Interpersonal psychotherapy is considered to be effective in resolving problems of Grief, role disputes, role transition, and interpersonal deficit.
What therapist is considered a primary behavioral therapist? Skinner
The ______ develops because the needs, wishes, and demands of the id cannot be satisfactorily met through primary processes and reflex action. Ego
This portion of the personality represents the moral component of personality. Superego
The _______consists of the conscience and the ego ideal . Superego
The ________represents the ideal rather than the real. Superego
In a mature and well-adjusted individual, the three systems fo the personality work together as a team under the administrative leadership of the Ego
If the id is too powerful, the person will lack control of impulses
If the superego is too powerful the person may be Self-critical and suffer from feelings of inferiority.
The ego develops these to ward off anxiety fy preventing conscious awareness of threatening feelings. defense mechanisms
What two common features do defense mechanisms share? They all operate on an unconscious levele and they deny, falsify, or distort reality to make it less threatening.
Freud thought that personality was formed by the time The childe entered school.
Pairing a behavior with a condition that reinforces or diminishes the behavior's occurrence. Conditioning
The manipulation of selected reinforcers to elicit and strengthen desired behavioral responses. operant conditioning
A consequence of behavior that increases the occurrence of a behavior. Reinforcer
When the client esperiences feelings toward the nurse or therapist that were originally held toward significant others in his or her life. Transferance
The healthcare workers unconscious and personal response to teh client. Countertransference
This type of therapy is oriented more to the here and now, and less of an attempt is made to reconstruct the developmental origins of conflicts. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
One of the most common approaches to psycotherapy. Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy
The duration of this therapy is 10 sessions or less. Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy
Patients with psychosis, severe depression, and borderline personality disorders, as well as individuals with severe character disorders, often are not candidates for what type of therapy? Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy
This type of therapy focuses on reassurance, clarification of feeling states, improvement of interpersonal communication, and improvement of interpersonal skill, rather than on personality reconstruction. Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)
What are the four type of problem areas that are identified in IPT? Grief, role disputes, role transition, and interpersonal deficit.
This type of therapy is based on the theorhetic principle that how people feel and behave is largely determined by the way in which they think about the world and their place in the world. Cognitive Therapy
This therapy is based on the assumption that changes in maladaptive behavior can occur without insight into the underlying cause. Behavioral Therapy
This form of behavioral modification therapy involves the development of behavioral tasks customized to the patients specific fears; these tasks are presented to the patient while she is using learned relaxation techniques. Systematic Desensitization
This type of therapy is akin to punishment. Aversion Therapy
This type of therapy is widely used to treat behaviors such as alcoholism, sexual deviation, and self-mutilation. Aversion Therapy
What three questions must be answered before initiating any aversive protocol? Is this therapy in the best interest of the patient? Does its use violate the patient's rights? Is it in the best interest of society?
The use of total environment ot treat disturbed children. Milieu Therapy
A comfortable and secure environment. milieu
Recognizing the people, setting, structure, and emotional climate as all important to healing. milieu
A clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome experienced by a person and marked by distress, disability, or the risk of suffering disability or loss of freedom. Mental Illness
Successful performance of mental functions, resulting in the ability to engage in productive activities, enjoy fulfilling relationships, and change or cope with adversity. Mental Health
________provides people with the capacity for rational thinking, communication skills, learning, emotional growth, resilience, and self-esteem. Mental Health
Mental diseases that can be identified along a mental health continuum. Mental Disorders
This is a broad field that addresses what happens to people with illnesses who are seen by providers of clinical care. Clinical Epidemiology
Mental disorders caused by neurotransmitter dysfunction, abnormal brain structure, inherited genetic factors, or other biological causes. Biologically Base Mental Illness or Psychobiological Disorder
Biologically influenced mental illnesses: Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, OCD, panic disorders, PTSD, Autism, anorexia nervosa, and ADHD.
A patient who has psychophysiological factors affecting medical conditions is between what areas on the mental health continum? Between the mild and moderate.
A patient with anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, somatoform disorders, personality disorders, or eating disorders is where on the mental health continum? Between moderate and severe.
A patient with depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, schizophrenic disorders, or cognitive disorders is where on the mental health continum? Between sever and psychosis.
A patient who exhibits joys, sorrows, and anxiety levels that aid in the work of living is where on the mental health continum? Below mild.
What type of psychiatric disorder affects the most people in the US? Anxiety Disorders
Axis I of the DSM-IV-TR refers to The collection of signs and symptoms that together constitute a particular disorder.
Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR refers to Personality disorders and mental retardation.
Axes I and II constitute the classification of Abnormal behavior.
What does the clinician indicate on Axis III of the DSM-IV-TR? Any general medical conditions believed to be relevant to the mental disorder in question.
What is Axis IV on the DSM-IV-TR for? Reporting psychosocial and environmental problems that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of a mental disorder.
Axis V is also called the GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning)
This assessment gives an indication of the person's best level of psychological, social, and occupational functioning during the preceeding year rated on a scale of 1 to 100. GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning)
What contribution to psychiatric nursing practicw was made by Freud? The theory of personality structure and levels of awareness.
This person's theory is the foundation for Hildegard Peplau's nursing theory of interpersonal relationships. Sullivan
The concepts at the heart of Sullivan's theory are: To get needs met through interpersonal interactions and to decrease or avoid anxiety.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on an underlying theoretical rationale that How people feel and behave is largely determined by the way in which they think about the world and their place in it.
Providing a safe environment for a patient with impaired cognition, referring an abused spouse to a safe house, and conducting a community are nursing interventions that address aspects of milieu therapy