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Biology Yr 11

Biology Notes

What is 'species diversity?' The number of different species and the abundance of each species in an ecosystem.
What is an ecosystem? Any area that contains a community of living things that interact with each other and their environment.
What are 'selection pressures' caused by? They are caused by combinations of abiotic and biotic factors as well as human activity.
What is the meaning of 'abundance?' The number of individuals per species in a specific area at a specific time.
What is 'biological diversity?' It refers to the variety of living things on Earth, the genes they contain and the ecosystems they live in.
What are biotic factors? The living components or biological features of an environment including animals plants and microorganisms.
What are abiotic factors? The non-living components of an environment (physical and chemical features).
What is viscosity? The thickness/stickiness of a fluid.
What is 'buoyancy?' The ability of an object to float in a medium.
What is the level of classification? Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
What is natural selection? Natural selection is the process that decides which organisms will live and which will die.
What is divergent evolution? When more than one organism stem form the same ancestor. E.g. the Finch.
What is convergent evolution? When completely different organisms live in the same kind of environment and lead similar lifestyles, they will be subject to the same sorts of selection pressures. They may come to resemble each other. E.g. the dolphin (a mammal) and the shark (a fish).
What is 'comparative anatomy?' When different organisms share similar body structures. E.g. the arm of a vertebrate.
What is comparative embryology'?' When the embryos of various vertebrate animals are compared, they are quite similar, although they later turn into different animals.
What is relative dating? The sequential order of rock layers/strata.
What is absolute dating (also known as carbon dating)? It dates organic remains.
What is meant by the term 'half life?' The time it takes for original atoms to decay.
What is a transect? A cross-section through an area. It is used to record the type and number of species present.
Created by: T Greenfield
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