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Micro-Unit 1 Test

QuestionAnswer
"true nucleus", larger, more complex structurally eukaryotic
"before the nucleus", smaller, much simpler structurally prokaryotic
bacteria shapes bacillus (rods), coccus (spheres), spirals (vibrio, spirillum, spiral)
many ___ within a species; isolates from different locations; isolates from different patients; different mutations strains
compare and contrast: eukaryotes and prokaryotes both have ribosomes, plasma membrane, cytoplasm; different: sizes, complexity of structure, nucleus in euk and no nucleus in pro; pro--no membrane bound organelles and has moving nucleoid
bacteria arrangement: none i.e.-E. coli; spirals always have no arrangement
bacteria arrangement: diplo (how many? occurs in what shapes?) 2, coccus or bacillus
bacteria arrangement: tetrads (how many? occurs in what shape(s)?) 4, cocci
bacteria arrangement: sarcinae (shape and arrangement) 8, cocci, cubelike
bacteria arrangement: strepto (what shape? occurs in?) chain/line, coccus or bacillus
bacteria arrangement: staphylo (shape and arrangement) cluster, coccus
bacteria arrangement: palisades stacked like books, bacillus
prokaryotic flagella: monotrichous single flagellum at one pole
prokaryotic flagella: amphitrichous flagella at both poles of the cell
prokaryotic flagella: lophotrichous a tuft of flagella coming from one pole
prokaryotic flagella: peritrichous flagella distributed over the entire cell
prokaryotic: bundles of fibers that arise at the ends of the cell beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cell; found only on spirochetes axial filaments (act kind of like rotating brush on a vacuum)
prokaryotic extracellular appendage that allows for attachment to surfaces fimbrae
prokaryotic extracellular appendage that allows for attachment to other bacteria for transfer of DNA pili
protect bacteria from the immune system; can also help bacteria stick to surfaces; can either be capsule (sugar coating around individual bacteria) or biofilm/slime layer (syrup like coating around groups of bacteria) glycocalyx
two major components of prokaryotic cell walls peptidoglycans and lipids
prokaryotic cell with more peptidoglycans gram +, stains purple
prokaryotic cell with more lipids; gets decolorized with alcohol during staining process because alcohol destroys the lipids gram -, stains red/pink
the science of classifying organisms; shows degree of similarity among organisms taxonomy
who made the first classification system (animal, vegetal/plant) Aristotle
Linnaeus-->modern classification system Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Binomial Nomenclature use the Genus (capitalized) and species (lowercase) as the scientific name for each organism (both italicized or underlined---not for viruses though)
three domains prokarya (bacteria), eukarya, archaea
5 kingdoms animal, plant, fungi, protista, monera/bacteria
_____ added below species; represents a species with a genetic modification; identified by a series of letters and numbers strain
manual encyclopedia of microbial classification Bergey's
domain prokarya--kingdom bacteria--how many phyla? how many are gram negative? gram positive? 14 phyla, 12 gram -, 2 gram +
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum _____ (Gram -); actually blue-green algae, photosynthetic Cyanobacteria
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum _____ (Gram -); small obligate intracellular parasites; cause Chlamydia #1 most transmitted STD in the world Chlamydiae
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum _____ (Gram -); spiral shape; Treponema pallidum (causes syphilis) Spirochaete
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum Firmicutes (Gram +), Genus ____ and Genus _____; produce endospores for survival Clostridium botuli and Bacillus anthracis
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum Firmicutes (Gram +), Genus _____; Halophiles, S. aureus, MRSA, S. epidermitidis Staphylococcus
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum Firmicutes (Gram +), Genus _____; leading probiotic Genus Lactobacillus
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum Firmicutes (Gram +), Genus _____; S. infections, S. pyogenes (Beta hemolytic species), S. mutans Streptococcus
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum Firmicutes (Gram +), Genus _____; tiny, intracellular; one cause of bacterial pneumonia Mycoplasma
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum Firmicutes (Gram +), Genus _____; ***acid-fast cell wall (mycolic acid---waxy lipids); M. tuberculi, M. leprae Mycobacterium
Domain Prokarya, Kingdom Bacteria, Phylum _____ (Gram +); filamentous bacteria; Genus Corynebacteria (causes diphtheria); Genus Streptomyces (produces antibiotics) Actinobacteria
Domain Eukarya 4 kingdoms Animal, Plant, Fungi, and Protista
What falls under Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi? molds and yeasts
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi, _____; single-celled, reproduce by budding, Genus Sacchromyces, Genus Candida (candida infections, thrush) yeasts
Terminology: Myco=_____ , Mycology=_____ , Mycelium=_____ fungus, study of fungus, fuzzy mat of hyphae
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi, _____; fruiting body, classified by asexual/sexual reproduction (makes spores) molds
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi, Phylum _____; sexual reproduction produces zygospores, sporangia Zygomycota (Rhizopus)
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi, Phylum _____; conidia (naked spores) Ascomycota (Aspergillus)
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi, Phylum _____; basidiocarp (mushroom cap), not clinically significant Basidiomycota
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi, Phylum _____; fungus that live inside of other cells Microsporidia
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Subkingdom _____; photosynthetic, water-living, not pathogenic Algae
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Subkingdom Protozoa, Terminology: _____ = infectious stage, developing/maturing/moving around; _____ = resistance stage trophozoite, cyst
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Phylum _____; moves by flagella Sarco-mastigophora
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Phylum Sarco-mastigophora, Genus Trypanosoma Sleeping sickness
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Phylum Sarco-mastigophora, Genus ____, caused by sand fly Leishmania
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Phylum Sarco-mastigophora, Genus Trichomonas Vaginitis
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Phylum Sarco-mastigophora, Genus Giardia; dikaryon (looks like eyes) Giardiasis
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Phylum Ciliophora; movies by cilia, Balantidium coli dysentery
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Phylum Sarcodina; Amoeboid moves by pseudopodia, Entamoeba histolytica amoebic dysentery
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista, Phylum Apicomplexa (sporozoa); non-motile; Genus Toxoplasma (_____), Genus Plasmodium (____) Toxoplasmosis, Malaria
having both male and female reproductive organs in the same organism Monoecious
having the male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals Dioecious
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animal, Phylum Platyhelminth, Genus Trematoda flukes; flat worms; short, flat (flukes are in all animals; hangs out in the liver)
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animal, Genus Cestoda tape worms; long, flat
parts of tape worms (Genus Cestoda): head is called _____, body pieces are called ____ head=scolex; body pieces=proglottids
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animal, Phylum Nematoda round worms; ex: ascaris, hookworm, pinworm, heartworm
domain? prokaryotes but lack peptidoglycans; 2 Phyla-thermophiles, all others; no human pathogens Domain Archaea
what microbes fall under Domain Archaea? extremophiles (thermophiles, methanogens, halophiles)
Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animal; other group besides helminths Arthropod Vectors
2 components of viruses nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), capsid (protective protein coat)
capsid are made of subunits called? capsomeres
3 types of capsid helical (coats entire spiral), polyhedral (multi-sided), complex (combo of both)
viruses: living or non-living? non-living; acellular entities
other possible components of viruses? envelopes and spikes
envelope of virus: made of ____ and ____? purpose? sugar and lipids; protects capsid
sugar outgrowths on some envelopes; for attachment spikes
virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium bacteriophage
virus or disease that can be transmitted to humans from animals (i.e.-rabies-->animal-->human) zoonoses
Lytic life cycle of virus? attachment, penetration, biosynthesis, assembly, release
Lytic and Lysogenic life cycle of virus: virus to host cell attachment
Lytic life cycle of virus: getting viral nucleic acid into host cell; if whole virus went into cell, capsid is removed--'uncoating' penetration
Lytic and Lysogenic life cycle of virus: host cell reads virus genetic info and starts replicating pieces of DNA or RNA biosynthesis
Lytic and Lysogenic life cycle of virus: putting all the pieces together assembly
Lytic life cycle of virus: host cell lyses, viruses are released; causes outbreaks release
Lysogenic life cycle of virus? attachment, penetration, biosynthesis, assembly, cell division
Lysogenic life cycle of virus: similar to lytic but virus nucleic acid fuses to the host cell nucleic acid penetration
Lysogenic life cycle of virus: viral DNA/RNA controls the cell (oncogenic) cell division
enveloped or naked? measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, HepB, HepC, influenza, HIV, ebola enveloped
enveloped or naked? Rotavirus, Rhinovirus, HPV, HepA naked
are among the smallest infectious pathogens known; no protein coats; only attack plants viroids
are the only known infectious agents that do not contain DNA or RNA; abnormal protein; diseases such as Mad Cow disease, Bovine spongiform encephalitis, Creutzfeldt- Jakob (human form), Scrapies, Kuru prions
3 modifications made to Linnaeus Classification System expanded number of kingdoms from 2 to 5, domain added above kingdom (supposed to be r/t cell type), strain added below species (species with a genetic modification)
arthropod vector: flea--causes what? plague
arthropod vector: flies--causes what? leishmania (sand fly), sleeping sickness (tse-tse fly)
arthropod vector: ticks--causes what? Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (wood tick), Lyme disease (deer tick)
arthropod vector: mosquito--causes what? West Nile virus, Malaria, Zika, Bird flu
arthropod vector: kissing bug--causes what? Chagas Disease
the 5 subphylum of proteobacteria? alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon
gram-; these bacteria are mostly agricultural (nitrogen fixers, decomposers); clinically significant ones are: Rickettsia (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever), Bartonella (Cat Scratch Fever) alpha proteobacteria
gram-; Bordetella (pertussis – Whooping Cough), Neisseria (gonorrhea, meningitis) beta proteobacteria
gram-; Pseudomonadales, Legionales, Enterobacteria, Klebsiella, Yersinia gamma proteobacteria
gram- bacteria that prey on other bacteria, important to the sulfur cycle delta proteobacteria
gram-; Helicobacter pylori (ulcers) epsilon proteobacteria
Created by: nurse savage