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Unit 8

Energy

TermDefinition
Energy the ability to do work; measured in joules (J)
Energy transformation takes place when energy changes from one form into another
Law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change forms
Potential energy the energy that an object has because of the position, condition, or chemical composition of the object
Kinetic energy the energy of an object that is due to the object’s motion
Mechanical energy the sum of an object’s potential and kinetic energies
Sound energy a type of kinetic energy resulting from the vibration of particles
Electromagnetic energy energy in the form of waves produced by the vibration of electrically charged particles (i.e. light waves)
Chemical energy a form of potential energy stored in the bonds that hold compounds together
Thermal energy the energy in an object due to the motion of its molecules; the total kinetic energy of all particles in a substance
Heat the energy transferred between objects that causes a change in temperature
Temperature the average kinetic energy of the molecules in an object or substance
Electrical energy the energy of moving electrons
Nuclear energy energy in the nucleus of an atom that is released when nuclei are split or joined
Fission the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into two
Fusion the joining of two different atomic nuclei into one
Renewable energy sources of energy that do not have a limited supply available
Energy transfer the movement of energy from one object or system to another
Potential energy the energy that an object has because of the position, condition, or chemical composition of the object
Kinetic energy the energy of an object that is due to the object’s motion
Mechanical energy the sum of an object’s potential and kinetic energies
Force a push or pull exerted on an object in order to change the motion of the object
Work the use of force to move an object some distance
Thermal energy the energy in an object due to the motion of its molecules; the total kinetic energy of all particles in a substance
Heat the energy transferred between objects that causes a change in temperature
Temperature the average kinetic energy of the molecules in an object or substance
Calorie the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
Conduction the transfer of energy as heat from one substance to another through direct contact
Conductor a material that transfers heat well
Insulator a materials that does not transfer heat well
Convection the transfer of energy as heat by the movement of a liquid or gas
Convection current circular motion of liquids or gases due to density differences that result from temperature differences
Radiation the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Medium the material (solid, liquid, or gas) through which a wave can travel
Crest the highest point in a wave
Trough the lowest point in a wave
Rarefaction increasing the wavelength of a longitudinal wave
Compression decreasing the wavelength of a longitudinal wave
Longitudinal wave a wave in which particles move back and forth in the same direction that the wave travels
Transverse wave a wave in which particles move perpendicularly to the direction the wave travels.
Surface wave the effect produced when longitudinal and transverse waves combine
Mechanical wave waves that require a medium
Electromagnetic wave waves that are vibrations of electric and magnetic fields and do not require a medium to travel through
Amplitude the distance particles in a wave move from their rest position
Wavelength the distance from any point on a wave to the next identical point on the same wave (i.e. the distance from crest to crest)
Wave period the time required for identical parts of consecutive waves to pass a given point (i.e. the time between two crests)
Frequency the number of waves that pass a point in a given amount of time, usually one second; measured in hertz (Hz)
Wave speed the speed at which a wave travels; often dependent on the medium
Electric current the rate of flow of electric charges; measured in amperes
Direct current electric current in which charges move in one direction
Alternating current electric current in which charges repeatedly change direction
Voltage the amount of work required to move each unit of charge between two points (aka electric potential)
Resistance the opposition to the flow of electric charge; measured in ohms
Electric circuit a complete, closed path through which electric charges can flow
Battery a device which converts stored chemical energy into electrical energy
Electrical conductor a material through which electric charges can move easily
Electrical insulator a material through which electric charges cannot move easily
Load a device within an complete circuit that uses electrical energy to operate
Series circuit a circuit in which all parts are connected in a row that forms one path for the electric charges to follow
Parallel circuit a circuit in which electric charges have more than one path that they can follow
Created by: SchvederC