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Unit 7 (4-7)

Properties of Matter (Lessons 4-7)

TermDefinition
Chemical reaction the process in which atoms are rearranged by breaking some bonds and forming others to produce new substances
Chemical formula a representation of a substance using chemical symbols and numbers to indicate how many of each type of atom are in the compound
Subscript numbers written below and to the right of chemical symbols that indicate how many of that atom are found in that compound
Chemical equation an expression that uses symbols to show the relationship between the starting substances and the substances that are produced by a chemical reaction
Reactant the starting substance(s) in a chemical reaction
Product the substance(s) that are formed in a chemical reaction
Law of conservation of mass in chemical and physical changes, mass can be changed, but it cannot be created or destroyed
Coefficient a number that is placed in front of a chemical formula to indicate how many molecules of that compound there are in the chemical equation
Endothermic reaction a chemical reaction that requires an input of energy
Exothermic reaction a chemical reaction that releases energy to the surroundings
Law of conservation of energy energy can change forms, but it cannot be created or destroyed
Reaction rate describes the speed of a reaction
Concentration the amount of reactant dissolved in a given volume of solution
Catalyst a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up
Enzyme specific catalysts (usually made of proteins) found in living things
Mixture a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
Homogeneous mixture a mixture in which two or more substances are so well blended that it looks like it is made of only one substance
Solution a homogeneous mixture in which the substances are blended on a molecular level
Colloid a type of liquid homogeneous mixture containing particles that are small enough that they don’t settle to the bottom, but large enough to scatter light if shined through the mixture
Suspension a type of liquid homogeneous mixture containing particles that are large enough to block light, make the substance appear cloudy, and eventually settle to the bottom
Solute a substance that is being dissolved into a solution
Solvent the substance in which another substance is being dissolved
Concentration the measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent
Dilute a solution containing a small amount of solute in a given volume of solvent
Concentrated a solution containing a large amount of solute in a given volume of solvent
Saturated a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute that can be completely dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature and pressure
Unsaturated a solution that contains less than the maximum amount of solute that can be completely dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature and pressure
Supersaturated an unstable solution containing more than the maximum amount of solute that can ordinarily be completely dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature and pressure
Solubility the ability of a solute to dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a particular temperature and pressure
Acid a substance that increases the number of positively charged hydronium ions (H3O+) when dissolved in water
Base a substance that increases the number of negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water
Strong acid/base a solution in which all or almost all of the dissolved acid/base particles break apart to form ions when dissolved in solution
Weak acid/base a solution in which only some of the dissolved acid/base particles break apart to form ions when dissolved in solution
Concentrated acid/base a solution in which a large amount of acid/base is dissolved (may be strong or weak)
Dilute acid/base a solution in which a small amount of acid/base is dissolved (may be strong or weak)
Corrosive has the ability to react with and destroy body tissue, clothing, and other things
Indicator a substance that changes color based on the amount of acid or base present
Caustic has the ability to burn or corrode other substances
Neutralization reaction the reaction between an acid and a base in a water solution
Salt an ionic compound that forms from the negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base in a neutralization reaction
pH a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
Created by: SchvederC