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circulatory system

chapter 12

Agranulocytes White blood cells that lack granules in the cytoplasm: a: without granul/o: granules cyte: cells
antibodies destroys substances
antibody-mediated immunity immunity resulting from B-cell
antigens substances that triggers immune response
atria (singular atrium) Thin walled chambers of the heart that receives blood from the veins.
atrioventricular valves valves between the atria and ventricles of the heart; tricuspid on the right side, mitral on the left side. atri/o: atrium ventricul/o: ventricle
cardiac cycle a complete heartbeat consisting of contraction and relaxation of both atria and both ventricles
cell-mediated immunity immunity T cells action
coagulation the process of blood clotting: coagul /o: clotting tion: process
conduction myofibers part of conduction system Purkinje fibrous
diapedesis Leukocytes squeeze between cells in vessel walls Dia: through
Diastole relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle; opposite of systole
endocardium the thin, smooth inner lining of each chamber of the heart, that permits blood to move easily. endo: around, outside card/i: heart um: tissue
erythrocytes red blood cells. erythr/o: red
erythropiesis the process of erythrocyte formation. poieses: formation
erythropoietin a hormone released by the kidneys that stimulate red blood cell production. poietin: substances that form
granulocytes granules in the cytoplasm of a cell:
hematopoiesis erythrocyte production in the red bone marrow
hemocytoblast a stem cell in the bone marrow hem/o : blood blast: to form
hemoglobin the iron-containing protein in red blood cells that is responsible for the transport in oxygen. globin: protein
hemostasis The control or stoppage of bleeding
immunoglobulins destroys substances ; antibodies immun: immunity or protection
leukocytes white blood cells
macrophage large phagocytic tissue cell phage: to eat
megakaryocyte a large cell that contributes to the formation of platelets. mega: large kary/o: nucleus
myocardium middle layer of the heart wall; cardiac muscle, provides the force to eject blood from the heart to the vessels. my/o: muscle um: tissue
non specific defense mechanism body's ability to counter act many types of harmful agents
pericardial cavity small space around the heart,
pericardium membrane that surrounds the heart; usually refers to the pericardial sac.
pulmonary circulation the pathway that takes blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and then returns it to the left side of the heart. pulmon- lung
renal erythropoietic factor a substance produced by the kidneys that activates erythropoietin to stimulate the production of red blood cells. ren/o: kidney poie: formation of blood cells
resistance body's ability to counteract the effects of pathogens and other harmful agents.
right lymphatic duct the collecting duct of the lymphatic system that collects lymph from the upper right quadrant of the body
semilunar valves valves between the ventricles of the heart and the vessels that carry blood away from the ventricles; also pertains to the valves in the veins.
specific defense mechanism activities of the body that counteract only certain types of harmful agents.
susceptibility lack of resistance to disease
systemic circulation pathways that transport blood from the left side of the heart to all parts of the body and return the blood to the right atrium; excludes pulmonary circulation.
systole contraction phase of the cardiac cycle; opposite of diastole
thoracic duct the primary collecting duct of the lymphatic system that collects lymph from all regions of the body except the upper right quadrant
thrombocytes a class formed elements of the blood; function in blood clotting; also called platelets. Blood clotting cells. thrombo/o: clot
ventricle pumping chambers of the heart;
epicardium outer layer of the heart, blood vessels that nourish the heart.
Albumins produced in the liver, protein in urine, assists in fluid balance
globulins antibodies that function in immunity
eosinophils segmented nucleus, 2 lobes, large granules, bright reddish orange, surrounds histamine, and increase their amount during an allergic reaction.
basophils very few, large, S-shaped nucleus, coarse granules, black and blue colored. secretes histamine that dilates blood vessels, and heparin anticoagulant.
lymphocyte large, round, purpleish-blue cytoplasm. contains few to none granules. functions in the immune system and assists with the production of antibodies.
Thrombocytes fragments of bigger cells that are not complete cells. plug and closes breaks and tears in the blood vessels.
lymphatic system 3 primary functions. Returns extra fluid to blood. Absorption of fats and vitamins. defense against invading microorganisms and disease
formed elements RBC WBC Thrombocytes
lymphatic organs lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus
aging of the circulatory system left ventricle shrinks. thickening of the endocardium and valves of the heart. valves become more rigid.
coronary blood vessels that nourish the heart of the wall
left atrium receives oxygenated blood from lungs
ventricle right ventricle pumps blood into the lungs left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulation
systemic circulation pathway of the blood that transports blood from the left side of the heart through out the body.
monocyte largest, U-shaped nucleus, abundant cytoplasm, stained grayish-blue, becomes macrophage, last responder to clean up remaining bacteria.
heart located between the two lungs posterior to the sternum anterior to the vertebral column rests on the diaphragm
circulatory system heart, blood , blood vessels, lymph, lymphatic vessel, lymphatic organs
inter-ventricular septum the thick, muscular partition between the right and left ventricle.
neutrophils purple multi-lobed nucleus, first responders to tissue damage, engulfs bacteria, increases during acute infection
leukocytes there are five types of WBC: NEUTROPHILS, EOSINOHILS, BASOPHILS, MONOCYTE, LYMPHOCYTES. WBC are white and colorless before they get stained.
fibrinogen clotting process
plasma proteins albumin, globulin, fibrogen
AV bundle "bundle of his" electrical fiber that triggers the myocardium to contract and relax. purkinje fibers.
Artery carrys blood away from hearts and has 3 layers. tunica intima - inner tunica media - middle tunica externa - outer layer
lymphatic vessels carry fluid away from tissue, the flow of the lymph is slow and sluggish.
functions of blood transportation, regulation, protection.
left ventricle pumps blood to the whole body
left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the inferior vena cava.
lymph node inguinal nodes- groin axillary nodes- armpit cervical node- in the neck
tonsils pharyngeal (adenoids) - nasal cavity Palatine - oral cavity lingual - base of the tongue
size of the heart 9cm wide 12cm long
Atherosclerosis signs and symptoms: chest pain, in heart, in brain, ischemic attacks, kidney dysfunction. diagnosis: P.E, medical history, blood test, doppler ultra sounds. treatment: healthy diet, blood thinners, stent bypass.
coronary artery disease (CAD) signs and symptoms: chest pain, dyspnea, arrhythmias, fatigue. diagnosis: P.E, medical history, stress test, treatment: asprin, bypass surgery, healthy lifestyle
cardiomypathy signs and symptoms: chest pain, dyspnea, peripheral edema Diagnosis: P.E, echocardium, blood test, ECG treatment: pacemaker, defibrillator, LVAD, ablation, heart transplant
IgG 75%-85% , located in the plasma. function: inactivates antigen, neutralizes toxins, responsible for rh reaction.
IgA 5%-15%, found in saliva, mucus, tears, breast milk. function: protects mucous membrane from body surfaces; provides immunity for newborn.
IgM 5%-10%, attached to b cells, released into the plasma during immune response. function: causes antigens to clump together, responsible for transfusion reactions in ABO blood typing system
IgD .2% attached to b cells. binding with antigen results in b cell activation
IgE .5% produced by plasma cells in mucous membranes and tonsils. binds to basophils, causing release of histamine, responsible for allergic reactions.
active natural contract disease and produce memory cell
active artificial receive a vaccination and produce memory cell
passive natural receive maternal antibodies through the placenta or breast milk
passive artificial receive antiserum with antibodies from another host
Created by: winterbear979