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Foreman/Stapp 12

Layers of Earth - 6.10A

Inner Core The sphere of solid nickel and iron at the center of Earth; surrounded by the liquid outer core.
Outer Core The outer layer of Earth’s core; surrounds the inner core and is made of liquid nickel and iron.
Mantle The solid layer of Earth between the crust and the core; made of dense silicates.
Crust The thin, solid outermost layer of Earth; made of less dense silicates and is either continental (landmasses) or oceanic (ocean floors).
Lithosphere The cool, rigid, outermost layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle; broken into pieces or segments called plates.
Asthenosphere The solid layer with plasticity in the upper mantle that is located just below the lithosphere; lithospheric plates “float” and move on this layer.
Plasticity A characteristic of the material in the asthenosphere; existing in a solid state yet having the ability to flow without being a liquid.
Earth’s Layers The divisions of the composition of Earth determined by either chemical composition or by the physical state of matter.
Chemical Composition The types, quantities, and arrangements of elements that make up a substance.
Physical Properties Measureable characteristics that describe the physical state of something, including mass, magnetism, temperature, density, shape, volume, and conductivity.
Temperature A measure of the amount of heat energy.
States of Matter Distinct forms of matter known in everyday experience: solid, liquid, and gas; also referred to as phases of matter.
Pressure Force exerted on matter through contact with other matter; affects melting and boiling points.
Density The amount of matter in a given space or volume; it is a relationship between mass and volume. Less dense matter will form layers above dense matter.