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Biology Semester 2

the starred ones i need help with

TermDefinition
1st division creates 2 cells with a haploid number of chromosomes and are in X form
2 parts of cell cycle interphase and cell division
2 parts of protein synthesis transcription and translation
2nd division creates 4 cells and chromosome are in their original shape
3 steps of mRNA processing cap added, poly A tail added, spliced
Adaptions for Fitness Survival, Reproduction, Artificial Selection, Descent with Modification
adaptive radiation species diversifies into many new species
Alfred Wallace naturalist; proposed theory of evolution individually; writes to darwin about theory promoting him to publish theory which formed many years before
Allele Different forms of a gene
analogous look and function same but not from common ancestor
Anaphase chromosomes split at centromere and go to opposite ends
Anaphase I same as mitosis except chromosome number stays the same and tetrads separate
artificial selection most fit adaptions are based on human choices; individuals are bred to pass on desired traits
asexual multicellular use cell division process with mitosis to create whole new organism
asexual reproduction produce new organism genetically identical to the original
asexual unicellular when cell to large, divides and identical to parent cell
Autosomes Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty (1944) repeated Griffith's experiment using enzymes to destroy macromolecules each round
backbones sugar and phosphate alternating
bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria
Barr body Inactivated X chromosome
base pairing A and T, C and G
bases are held together by hydrogen bonds
behavioral isolation separated by behavioral differences and don't mate
beneficial consequences of mutation protein change works faster, more protein and benefits
benign tumors stay clustered together and can be removed
biochemical dna sequences between 2 closely related species are more similar than those who are not
bionary fission single cell dividing producing 2 new cells each its own organism
blastocyst hollow ball of cells (outer cell mass) filled with fluid with cluster of cells in the inside wall (inner cell mass)
bottleneck effect randomly remove large numbers of individuals from a population
cancer uncontrollable cell divison
Carbon-14 relatively new; for living things
Carolus Linnaeus Botanist; proposed a classification system to name and group species
causes of mutation environment, replication error, crossing-over error, mitosis or meiosis error
Cell Division cell splits into 2 daughter cells
cells are-- before gamete cell division haploid
Central Dogma DNA-RNA-Protein
Chargoff noticed adenine adenine and thymine was similar and cytosine and guanine were similar
Charles Darwin studied theology in college; naturalist abroad HMS Beagle; proposed theory of evolution; published "On the Origin of Species" in 1859
Charles Lyell geologist; published "Principles of Geology"; proposed the same forces at work in geology today are the same that shaped structures throughout time on earth; had to take a long time
Chromatin chromosome spread out
Chromatin form DNA helix is wrapped around histone proteins and instructions easy to get to
chromosomal mutation change to the sequence which is seen on a chromosomal level
Chromosome form DNA helix tightly coiled with proteins and easy to move
Cladograms diagrams showing evolutionary relationships
coding strand DNA strand not being copies
Codominance A condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
coevolution species evolve together because of a close ecological relationship
convergent evolution species evolve to a similar form from different ancestors and adaptive to similar environment
cyclins proteins whose levels rise and fall, must reach certain level and interact with kinases to create cell division
Cytokenesis cell splits into 2
cytokinesis cytoplasm divides
Cytokinesis I same as mitosis but 2 haploid cells created
Darwin studied differences within and between species
living specimens
fossils
geology
Darwin's Theory Variation
Struggle for Existence
Natural Selection
deletion a base is removed
deletion (chromosomal) part of the chromosome has been lost
Descent with Modification individuals have a common descent; evolution over a long period of time diversifies species; all species descend from common ancestor
diploid cell containing 2 copies of each chromosome
directional selection occurs when natural selection favors one of the extreme variations of a trait
disruptive selection average phenotype selected against
DNA nucleotide deoxyribose, phosphate group, nitrogenous base
DNA overload same amount of dna must serve larger and larger areas
DNA polymerase enzyme that adds new nucleotides during DNA replication
down syndrome a trisomy of chromosome 21
duplication part of the chromosome is repeated
Edwards syndrome trisomy of chromosome 18
EFE: Species finch beaks; tortoise neck and shell; marine iguanas; organism patterns of similar environments
embryology many embryos looks similar to each other during development and develop in similar ways
embryonic, fetal, and adult stem cell stem cells around body and will divide to form a few types of specialized cells (multipotent)
end of interphase cell will have extra organelles and amount of DNA doubled
endosymbiotic theory eukaryotic cells created from symbiotic communities of prokaryotes
Epistasis A type of gene interaction in which one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene that is independently inherited.
evidence from fossil record 99% species extinct
exons coding segments of DNA
external controls growth factors, hormones, and crowding
F1 generation offspring of the P generation- hybrid
F2 generation Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
formation of gametes is in -- divisons 2
fossil record Darwin knew fossils represented dead organisms; knew newer organisms on top; record showed evidence of change over time
fossils sedimentary rock; ex. eggs, skeletons, footprints, droppings
founder effect small part of population removes itself from the larger population
frameshift mutation mutation that moves all the remaining bases forward or backward
functions of RNA instructions to build protein, help build protein, regulatory functions
G0 phase cells stay in G1 phase for a very long time or forever
G1 phase cell performs normal functions
G2 Phase replicates organelles
Galapagos Islands chain of islands near Ecuador
gametes sex cells
Gene A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
gene flow members of one population move to another population and breed
gene pool all the genes within a population
gene shuffling creates new variation by changing parts of the genetic code
genetic drift change in allele frequency due to random effects
Genotype genetic makeup of an organism
geographical isolation separated by geographical barriers
Griffith's experiment conducts series of experiments by injecting bacteria into mice
half-life amount of time required for half of a radioactive isotope to decay
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium allelic frequency stay the same
harmful consequences of mutation loss of function, change to regulatory section causing too much or too little of a protein
heat killed S strain mice lives
helicase unwinds the dna and binding proteins holds the strands apart
Hershey and Chase (1952) focused on protein vs DNA using bacteriophage
Heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
histone proteins the bead chromatin is looped around
homologous chromosomes 2 matching chromosomes
homologous structure structures that are similar in different species of common ancestry
homozygous dominant Both alleles (factors) for a trait are the same and dominant (AA)
homozygous recessive Both alleles (factors) for a trait are the same and recessive (aa)
How does a prokaryote of DNA look? loop of dna not in nucleus
How many autosomes do humans have? 44
how many chromosomes are in humans? 46
how was generation created self-pollination
incomplete dominance Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
Inheritance of Acquired Traits traits acquired by an organism can be passed on to the next generation
inner cell mass pluripotent and can form body cells but not supporting structures
insertion extra base is added
internal controls checkpoints and cyclins
interphase period of time where the cell grows and performs its functions for the body
introns non coding sequences of DNA
inversion part of the chromosome has been flipped
James Hutton geologist; proposed earth was millions of years old which was based on the processes of rock upheaved and weathering
Jean Baptiste Lamarck french naturalist; proposed one of the first theories about how species change over period of time; evolution
Klinefelter syndrome XXY
Lamarck's Theory 3 principles: Tendency Towards Perfection, Use and Disuse, Inheritance of Acquired Traits
Ligase enzyme that seals the backbone by connecting sugars and phosphates
linked gene one of a pair of genes that tend to be inherited together
malignant tumor can invade other tissues and difficult to remove
Meiosis II same as mitosis except starting cell is haploid and ends in 4 unique haploid cells
Metaphase chromosome lines up in middle of cell
Metaphase I same as mitosis but tetrads line up down middle instead of individual chromosomes
mitosis division of nucleus
mitosis ends with -- nuclei with the diploid number of chromosomes 2
mitosis starts with -- nuclei with the diploid number of chromosomes 1
Monosomy Chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
mosaic two different types of cells
mRNA carries instructions for protein production from nucleus to ribosome
multiple alleles A gene that has more than two alleles
natural selection organisms have adaptions that make them a good match to environment; individuals with better fitness survive longer and reproduce more therefore passing on their genes; future generations have more individuals with the well-fitted adaption
non-harmful consequence of mutation causes no change to protein, causes no change to function, causes change to function but not harmful neither beneficial, non-coding section
oncogenes accelerate cell cycle
p generation Purebred cross
p53 gene normally stops the cell division from occurring until all chromosomes are replicated
Patau Syndrome trisomy of chromosome 13
Pedigree symbols circles: female, square: male, colored in: affected
peptide bond Bonds that connect amino acids.
Phenotype An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
point mutation occur at a single point in DNA
polygenetic trait trait controlled by two or more genes
primase enzyme that adds a short section of RNA nucleotides
principle of dominance Mendel's second conclusion, which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
Principle of Independent Assortment genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
Principle of Segregation During meiosis, chromosome pairs separate into different gametes such that each of the two alleles for a given trait appears in a different gamete.
Prophase nucleus and membrane break down, DNA in chromosome form, and spindle fibers attach to centromere
Prophase I same as mitosis except chromosomes pair up with homologous chromosome and crossing over occurs
prymidines cytosine and thymine
punctuated equilibrium evolution shows long stable period and then rapid burst of change
Punnett Square A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
purines adenine and guanine
R strain and heat killed S strain mice dies bc parts of heat killed S strain transferred to living R strain
R strain injected mice live
radioactive dating determining a ratio of radioactive elements in age of fossil
relative dating location to other fossils
Reproduction big size, costly structures, behavior
reproductive isolation cannot mate and produce offspring
RNA has -- backbones 1
RNA nucleotide ribose sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base
Rosalind Franklin used imaging techniques with x-rays to determine structure of DNA and was unknowingly providing Watson and Crick with the image to help them with figuring out the structure
rRNA makes up the structure of the ribosome
S strain injected mice dies
semi-conservative each new DNA helix will have one old and one new strand
sexual multicellular organism produce gametes and fuses together to produce zygote
sexual reproduction organism creates new individual genetically unique to original
sexual unicellular cells exchange pieces of nuclear material
somatic cell any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
specialized cells only create cell of same type and access to genes need for their function only (unipotent)
stabilizing selection both extremes are selected against
stem cell cells have the potential to divide and create more than one type of specialized cell
struggle for existence populations would grow past resources and compete for food, space, mates
substitution one base is exchanged for another
surface area/ volume ratio cytoplasm increases faster than cell membrane, cell can't exchange enough material, material can't reach center fast enough
Survival camouflage, bright colors, big size, heightened senses, behavior
Synthesis Phase cells copy chromosome for the new cell
Telephase spindle fiber break down and chromosomes go into chromatin form
Telophase I same as mitosis
template DNA strand being copied
temporal isolation reproduce at different times
Tendency Toward Perfection innate tendency towards complexity and perfection
tetrad 2 of the same type of chromosome
the zygote is -- when the haploid cells come together diploid
Thomas Malthus economist; proposed human would run out of resources is the population continued to grow and that if resources were scarce, there would be competition
transcription DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
transcription factors proteins that bind to DNA and influence the expression of particular genes
translation Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
translocation Part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
Trisomy extra chromosome
tRNA attaches to specific amino acids and carries them to the ribosome
tRNA purpose base pairs with exposed codons
Tumor supression genes genes that stop cell cycle
Turner Syndrome XO
Use and Disuse organisms develops new adaption by using the structure more; organism loses an adaption by not using the structure
Variation individuals vary from each other; genetic variations passed from generations
vestigial structure structure that no longer has function but are still present
Watson and Crick Developed the double helix model of DNA and won the Noble Prize for it
What 3 ways is cell division used? growth, worn out, injury
What form of chromosome will it be in during cell division? chromatin
What organism did Mendel study? pea plants
where does transcription occur? nucleus
zygote divide and form all of the cell types in the body (called totipotent stem cell)
Created by: mathangis17