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Friendly Bio. Ch 21

Vocabulary Terminology for Chapter 21 in Friendly Biology

Question or TermAnswer or Definition
Anatomy The study of how living things are made.
Physiology The study of how living things function.
Bones Fuse together from infantry to adulthood reducing the number from 300 to 206.
Long bones Are bones that make up the legs and arms.
Flat bones Are bones that make up the skull and pelvis.
Irregularly-shaped bones Are bones that make up the spinal column
Ossification The hardening process of long bones from cartilage being replaced over time with calcium & phosphorus containing compounds.
Epiphyses The ends of long bones.
Diaphysis Joins two epiphyses.
Centers of ossification Are the locations where ossification begins.
Epiphyses line or growth plate Is the boundary where growth of the bone occurs.
Synovial Joints are between the long bones and contain synovial fluid.
Hyline Cartilage layer found at the end of long bones.
Synovial Fluid A fluid that is produced to reduce friction between the ends of two adjoining bones that allows bones to gently slide over each other.
Synovial Capsule Is the tough membranes which bridge the joint space between two bones
Arthritis Is the pain and inflammation that may result over time and with age when this slippery surface becomes worn.
Ball and Socket joint Is located between femur and pelvis at the hip.
Hinge joint Is located at the knee & elbow and is marked by bending in one direction.
Osteocytes The cells which make up bone.
Osteoblasts One kind of osteocyte or bone cell responsible for the building of new bone.
Osteclasts The second kind of osteocyte or bone cell responsible for taking apart or tearing down bone.
Protection Of the vital organs is another function of bone. Flat Skull bones protect the brain, the irregular-shaped bones of the spine protect the spinal cord, and ribs protect lungs, heart, and upper abdominal organs.
Red blood cell production Is another function of bone. It takes place in the marrow cavity of long bones.
Hemipoietic Tissue Is tissue that literally means blood-making tissue.
Marrow cavity Is the location of fat storage for adults as well as red blood cell production.
Storage site Is another function of bone. Fat and calcium are stored there. Calcium is important for the hardness of our bones & plays a major role in our nervous system.
3 muscle types are: Smooth muscle - located in stomach, bladder, intestines, & respiratory tract Cardiac muscle - located in heart Skeletal or striated muscle - located everywhere else and enables us to move
Contractile protein or filaments Are components of skeletal or striated muscle.
2 types of contractile proteins are: Actin & Myosin
Tendons Are tough connective tissue that attaches muscle to bones
Ligaments Are connective tissue that attaches bone to bone
Muscles can only actively Contract
Origin Of the muscle is the end of the muscle that is closer to the main trunk of the body.
Insertion Of the muscle is the end of the muscle that is farther away from the main trunk of the body.
Flexion Of a joint is the bending of the joint
Extension Of the joint is the straightening of the joint
Adduction Movement that comes closer to the body or inward
Abduction Movement that goes away from the body or outward
Neurons Are cells of the nervous system
Soma Is the central nucleus containing area of a neuron
Single axon Is present with multiple dendrites
Dendrite Is the end of a neuron that the stimulus or action potential travels into
Axon Is the end of a neuron the stimulus or action potential travels out of
Myocytes Are muscles cells where the axon terminates and where neurotransmitters are released to activate muscle contraction
Acetylcholine (ACH) Is the most common neurotransmitter
Efferent or motor neurons Neurons that carry messages out to the muscles
Afferent or sensory neurons Neurons that carry messages inward from sensory organs like the eye or skin
Conduction Of a stimulus is the result of sodium & potassium being pumped in & out of the neuron and calcium mediates this process.
Anesthesia Interferes with transmission of nerve impulses or neurotransmitter function which results in the desired control of pain &/or movement
Created by: CDM2KK