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Friendly Bio. Ch 11

Vocabulary Terminology for Chapter 11 in Friendly Biology

Question or TermAnswer or Definition
The making of a protein is protein synthesis
1st step in protein synthesis is the unzipping of the desired DNA by enzymes
the instructions or "recipe" for making proteins is found in DNA or genes
DNA segment used for creating proteins is found in what part of the cell Nucleus
The four nitrogen bases found in DNA are Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
What determines the type of protein synthesized the sequence of the bases
What unzips or opens the DNA for protein creation enzymes
Once the DNA is unzipped by enzymes what is exposed base pairs
What can be formed to make a copy of the sequence of of the exposed base pairs RNA
RNA stands for ribonucleic acid
Unlike DNA, RNA doesn't have the base Thymine, it has Uracil
How many strands does RNA have one or single
When RNA molecules align with exposed DNA bases, the RNA base Uracil bonds with Adenine
The RNA that forms on the DNA bases takes on the name mRNA or messenger RNA
The formation of mRNA takes place in nucleus of the cell whereas protein synthesis takes place in what part of the cell cytoplasm
proteins get built or assembled in what part of the cell ribosomes, which are found on the rough ER or endoplasmic reticulum
The mRNA strand codes for specific amino acids because it can be divided into three-base segments known as Codons
At the ribosome, amino acids available are "tagged" with tRNA or transfer RNA
The available amino acids when they ready to be assembled into proteins have segments of tRNA attached and they align themselves with segments of mRNA
The tRNA is specific for each amino acid and acts like a key
The tRNA will only fit the appropriate sequence of mRNA and mRNA acts like a lock
The tRNA is in sets of how many base pairs 3
These 3 based pairs in tRNA is called anticodon
Transcription is The process in which information is communicated from DNA to mRNA within the nucleus
Translation is The process in which information is communicated from mRNA to the ribosomes
Amino acids align to mRNA and form what kind of bond peptide
What causes the peptide bond to form between amino acids and mRNA enzymes
When DNA is damaged or altered, then the proteins made from this DNA may NOT work or function correctly
Damaged or altered DNA is known as genetic mutation
Causes of mutations are called mutagens or teratogens
Radiation or energy from the sun is an example of what mutagen
cells that change their behavior due to altered DNA may become cancer cells
Cancer cells are treated with radiation in an attempt to cause mutations in the DNA leading to their destruction
Created by: CDM2KK