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Science EOG Stuff

Everything I need to know for your 8th Grade Science EOG, every single thing! :)

TermDefinition
Scientific Method is first, Ready? STAAAARRRRT
Hypothesis A guess for something based from little evidence as a starter for getting more info.
Procedure The established way to do something.
Independent Variable A variable that doesn't depend on another variable.
Dependent Variable A variable that does depend on another variable.
Constant Something that doesn't change during a experiment
Control The base experiment to compare off of future experiments regarding the thing that was experimented on
Data Facts and statistics compiled together for research and analysis.
Quantitative/Qualitative Quantitative data are measures of values or counts and are expressed as numbers. Quantitative data are data about numeric variables(how many; how much; or how often). Qualitative data are measures of 'types' and may be represented by a name, symbol /#code
Hydrology/Freshwater is next. STAAAAAARRRT
Hydrosphere All the waters on the earth's surface, such as lakes and seas, and sometimes including water over the earth's surface, such as clouds.
Watershed (River Basin) An area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.
Aquifer A body of permeable rock which can contain or transmit groundwater.
Soil Permeability is the property of the soil to transmit water and air and is one of the most important qualities to consider for fish culture. A pond built in impermeable soil will lose little water through seepage. The more permeable the soil, the greater the seepage.
Water Table The level below which the ground is saturated with water.
Runoff The draining away of water (or substances carried in it) from the surface of an area of land, a building or structure, etc.
EPA The Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the United States federal government whose mission is to protect human and environmental health
Aeration The introduction of air into a material.
Coagulation The action or process of a liquid, especially blood, changing to a solid or semi-solid state.
Chlorination Water chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or chlorine compounds such as sodium hypochlorite to water. ... In particular, chlorination is used to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid.
Earth History is next. STAARARARARAT
Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of small particles and subsequent cementation of mineral or organic particles on the floor of oceans or other bodies of water at the Earth's surface.
Igneous rock Rocks formed through the cooling and solidifying of lava.
Intrusion The process of forcing a body of igneous rock between or through existing formations, without reaching the surface.
Plate Tectonics Theory Plate tectonics is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Radiometric Dating A method of dating geological or archaeological specimens by determining the relative proportions of particular radioactive bits present in a sample.
Unconformity An unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous.
Ice Cores An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet or a high mountain glacier. Since the ice forms from the incremental buildup of annual layers of snow, lower layers are older than upper, and an ice core has ice formed over years.
Evolution is next STAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAART
Taxonomy The classification of something, especially organisms.
Geologic Time Scale: Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Precambrian The time scale of the entire history of earth from a geologic centric stand point going in backwards order of named. Ceno=65 million years ago to present, Meso=65-248 million years ago, Paleo=248-544 million years ago, finally Precamb=544-earths start.
Homologous Structure An organ or bone that appears in different animals, underlining anatomical commonalities demonstrating descent from a common ancestor. Basically, it's when very different animals have bones that appear very similar in form/function and seem to be related.
Embryological Similarities Similarities of Embryos.
Vestigial Organs Vestigial organs are organs of the body which are smaller and simpler than those in related species. They have lost, or almost lost their original function.
Phenotype The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. Physical characteristics.
Variation A change or difference in condition, amount, or level, typically with certain limits.
Energy Resources is next yay fun
Fossil Fuel A natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
Biofuel Energy Fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal.
Fracking The process of injecting liquid at high pressure into subterranean rocks, boreholes, etc. so as to force open existing fissures and extract oil or gas.
Renewable Resource A renewable resource is a resource which can be used repeatedly and replaced naturally. Renewable energy almost never runs out, for example: solar energy is powered by heat from the sun and never runs out.
Nonrenewable Resource A non-renewable resource is a resource of economic value that cannot be readily replaced by natural means at a quick enough pace to keep up with consumption.
Natural Gas Flammable gas, consisting largely of methane and other hydrocarbons, occurring naturally underground (often in association with petroleum) and used as fuel.
Chemistry is up next dude heck
Atom The basic unit of a chemical element.
Compound A thing that is composed of two or more separate elements, a mixture.
Mixture A substance made by mixing other substances together.
Heterogeneous Mixture A heterogeneous mixture is simply any mixture that is not uniform in composition - it's a non-uniform mixture of smaller constituent parts. (Using various means, the parts in the mixture can be separated from one another.)
Homogeneous Mixture A homogeneous mixture is simply any mixture that is uniform in composition throughout.
Chemical Properties a property or characteristic of a substance that is observed during a reaction in which the chemical composition or identity of the substance is changed.
Proton, Neutron, Electron Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus of the atom. Proton—positive, electron—negative, neutron—no charge. The charge on the proton and electron are exactly the same size but opposite. The same number of protons and electrons exactly cancel each other.
Valence Electrons An outer shell electron that's associated with an atom, and can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the shell is not closed, in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute 1 valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Atomic Mass The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom.
Precipitate Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution. When the reaction occurs in a liquid solution, the solid formed is called the 'precipitate'. The chemical that causes the solid to form is called the 'precipitant'.
Catalyst A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself making any permanent chemical change.
Inhibitor A substance which slows down or prevents a particular chemical reaction or other process or which reduces the activity of a particular reactant, catalyst, or enzyme.
Concentration The relative amount of a given substance contained within a solution or in a particular volume of space; the amount of solute per unit volume of solution.
Infectious Diseases/Microbiology is next cool
Decomposer An organism, especially a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material.
Eukaryote An organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus.
Prokaryote A microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
Binary Fission A kind of asexual reproduction. It is the most common form of reproduction in prokaryotes. In binary fission, the fully grown parent cell splits into two halves, producing two new cells.
Conjugation The sharing of electron density between nearby multiple bonds in a molecule.
Vector A bacteriophage or plasmid which transfers genetic material into a cell, or from one bacterium to another.
Ecology is next Final subject!
Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Chlorophyll A green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a porphyrin ring.
Niche A position or role taken by a kind of organism within its community. Such a position may be occupied by different organisms in different localities, e.g., antelopes in Africa and kangaroos in Australia.
Symbiosis Interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.
Commensalism An association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm.
Carrying Capacity The number of people, other living organisms, or crops that a region can support without environmental degradation.
Limiting resource A limiting factor is a resource or environmental condition which limits the growth, distribution or abundance of an organism or population within an ecosystem.
THE END finally
Created by: Ozchamber