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EMT midterm

What are the key components of the Emergency Medical Services system? 991 and emergency medical dispatchers, First Responders, EMTs (all levels) and ambulances, emergency department and other hospital units
what are some of the special designations that hospitals may have? list them trauma center, burn center, pediatric care center, poison control center, cardiac center, and stroke center
what are the four national levels of EMS training and certification first responder, emt, emt-intermediate and emt-paramedic
what are the roles and responsibilities of the emt? safety of the crew, patient and bystanders; patient assessment; patient care; lifting and moving; transport; transfer of care and patient advocacy
what are desirable personal and physical attributes of the EMT? be in good health and able to lift and carry up to 125 pounds; good eyesight and hearing; able to clearly communicate in written and oral form; pleasant; sincere; cooperative; resourceful; a self-starter; emotionally stable; able to lead; and neat & clean
what is the definition of the term quality improvement a process of continuous self-review with the purpose of identifying and correcting aspects of the system that require improvement
what is the difference between on-line and off-line medical direction in on-line medical direction, the on-duty physician gives orders directly to the emt by telephone or radio. off-line medical direction, the EMT carries out written standing orders from the Medical Director
name some of the causes of stress for an EMT and explain some ways the EMT can alleviate job-related stress causes of stress may include multiple-casualty incidents, injuries to infants and children, severe injuries, abuse and neglect, the death of a coworker, or personal situations. ways to reduce include developing more healthful and positive habits
describe the purpose and process of a critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) the purpose of CISD is to assist in dealing w/ stress that is relation to a major incident. between 24-72 hours after in an open discussion of feelings experienced during and after. confidential.
what are the stages of grief? how should the EMT deal with these emotions? denial - the pt denies the fact that he or she is dying anger - the pt becomes angry bargaining - the pt tries to postpone death, even if only briefly depression - the pt is sad or in despair over things left undone acceptance - the pt is ready to die
list the types of personal protective equipment used in Standard Precautions and the condition which each would be used protective gloves - used w/ controlled bleeding, suctioning, artificial ventilation, CPR eye protection - used w/ splashing, spattering or spraying body fluids masks - w/ infections spread by airborne droplets gowns - w/ arterial bleeding, child birth
define scope of practice scope of practice - a set of regulations and ethical considerations that define the scope or extent and limits, of the EMT's job
negligence a finding of failure to act properly in a situation in which there was a duty to act, needed care as would reasonably be expected of the EMT was not provided and harm was caused to the patient as a result
duty to act an obligation to provide care to a patient
abandonment leaving a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transferred to someone with equal or greater medical training
confidentiality the obligation not to reveal info obtained about a pt except to other health care processionals involved in the pt's care or under subpoena or in a court of law or when the pt has signed a release of confidentiality
list several steps that must be taken when a pt refuses care or transportation 1. pt must be mentally competent and oriented 2. the pt must be fully informed and understand the risks associated with refusing treatment and/or transport 3. the pt must sign a release form
ways you may act to preserve evidence at a crime scene the condition of the scene, the condition of the pt, finger prints and footprints and microscopic evidence. remember what you touch, minimizing your impact on the scene and working w/ the police
list the 3 functions of the musculoskeletal system 1. to give the body shape 2. to protect vital internal organs 3. to provide for body movement
5 divisions of the spine cervical, thoracic, lumber, sacral, coccyx
describe the physical processes of inhalation inhalation is an active process. intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract. the diaphragm lowers and the ribs move upward and outward. this expands the size of the chest cavity, causing air to flow into the lungs.
describe exhalation exhalation is a passive process during which the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm relax. the ribs move downward and inward, while the diaphragm rises. the movement causes the chest cavity to decrease in size and forces air from the lungs.
list the 4 places a peripheral pulse may be felt radial, brachial, posterior tibialis, dorsalis pedis
describe the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system the CNS is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. the PNS is the two types of nerves - sensory and motor
3 functions of the skin 1. protection 2. temp regulation 3. sensation.
define: body mechanics the proper use of the body to facilitate lifting and moving
name the structures of the airway nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
name the techniques of artificial ventilation in the recommended order of preference 1. mouth to mask. 2. two person bag valve mask 3. flow restricted oxygen powered ventilation device 4. one person bag valve mask
list several indicators of violence or potential violence at an emergency scene unusual silence, fighting, load voices, weapons visible, signs of alcohol or drug use, knowledge of prior violence
list factors you will take into account in forming a general impression of a pt medical vs trauma, MOI or NOI, age, sex
AVPU alert, verbal, painful, unresponsive
priority decision determining whether a pt has a life-threatening condition that requires immediate transport to the hospital
name the vital signs respiration, pulse, skin color, temperature, and condition (plus capillary refill in infants and children), pupils and blood pressure
SAMPLE signs and symptoms, allergies, medications, past Hx, last intake, event that occurred
why is it important to reconsider MOI at the beginning of the focused history and physical exam of a trauma pt when you first arrive at the scene and must take in so much information at once, it is easy to miss things
DCAP BTLS deformities, contusions, abrasions, punctures/penetrations, burns, tenderness, lacerations, swelling
list steps of the rapid trauma assessment and describe the kind of pt for trauma assess. head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities and posterior. a pt with a significant MOI needs a rapid trauma assessment
what are the additional areas that you assess in the detailed physical exam that you did not evaluate in the rapid trauma assessment the scalp and cranium, face, ears, nose and mouth
explain how and why the focused history and physical exam for a medical pt differs from the focused history and physical exam for a trauma pt in medical pt, unlike trauma pts, there are not many external sources of information about what is wrong w/ the pt. for medical emergencies, the most important source of information about the problem is usually what the pt can tell you.
OPQRST onset, provokes, quality, radiation, severity, time
4 steps of ongoing assessment repeat initial assessment repeat and record vital signs repeat the focused history and physical exam check interventions
Created by: coroy



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