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3C Elevate Science

Topic 3 Human Body Systems Lesson 3 Supplying Energy

What is digestion? the process by which your body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules
What are nutrients? substances found in food that provide the raw materials, the body's cells need, to carry out their essential processes
What are carbohydrates? they provide energy for an organism; they are made up of sugar
What is a simple carbohydrate? it is a sugar; a smaller molecule that tastes sweet
What are examples of a simple carbohydrate? fruit, candy, sugar
What is a complex carbohydrate? it is a starch; larger molecules that are healthier sources of energy
What are examples of a complex carbohydrate? whole grains and rice
What are proteins? they are made up of amino acids and are for growth and repair
What are examples of proteins? fish, beef, eggs
What are fats used for? they are used for long term energy storage
Where do saturated fats come from? they come from animal products; ex: lard is a solid fat
Where do unsaturated fats come from? they come from plant products; ex: oil is a liquid fat
What are vitamins? nutrients that help the body with chemical reactions
What are minerals? nutrients not made by the body, but needed for chemical reactions; ex: calcium and iron
What is water? it is the most important nutrient for the body; it is mostly obtained through the food you eat
What is mechanical digestion? the physical movement and breakdown of food
Explain the steps of mechanical digestion. in the mouth, you are chewing the food; in the esophagus, peristalsis squeezes food down into th estomach; the stomach squeezes the food
What is chemical digestion? the chemicals breakdown food
Explain the steps of chemical digestion. in the mouth, saliva uses enzymes (proteins) that speed up the breakdown of the food; in the stomach, enzymes and hydrochloric acid break down food; in the intestines, digestive juices complete most of the breakdown of food
What organs are part of the lower digestive sytem? the small intestine, the liver and the pancreas
What happens in the small intestine? most nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream from this organ
What does the liver do? it secretes (releases) bile to help break down fat molecules; it filters blood from toxins; it stores extra vitamins
What does the pancreas do? it produces trypsin to help break down proteins; it secretes insulin
Describe the large intestine. it is shorter than the small intestine; it is the last stage of digestion
What does the large intestine do? it absorbs water from waste
What does the rectum do? it stores waste
What does the anus do? it eliminates waste
Created by: carlsond