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Biology Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
What is the body's ability to physiologically regulate its inner environment to ensure its stability in response to fluctuations in the outside environment? Homeostasis
What is it when concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside of it? Hypotonic
What is it when concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside it? Hypertonic
What is the process of capturing a substance or particle from outside the cell by engulfing it with the cell membrane, and bringing it into the cell? Endocytosis
What is the process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and releasing their contents to the outside of the cell? Exocytosis
What is the process by which certain living cells called phagocytes ingest or engulf other cells or particles? Phagocytosis
What is the movement of water or other solvent through a plasma membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration? Osmosis
What is the passive movement of particles (atoms, ions or molecules) from a region in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration? Diffusion
What is it when two solutions have the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane or equilibrium? Isotonic
What is the the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane? Pinocytosis
What is it called when a transport does NOT require energy? High concentration to low. Passive Transport
What is it called when a transport DOES require energy? Low concentration to high. Active Transport
What is it called when a cell allows certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive Transport but not all molecules and ions? Selectively permeable
What is the process in cell division by which the nucleus divides? Mitosis
What is the stage of cell division in mitosis or meiosis in which the doubled set of chromosomes separates into two identical groups that move to opposite ends of the cell? Anaphase
What are the fibers of the mitotic spindle extending from the two spindle poles toward the equator? Polar Fibers
What are the female reproductive cells called? Eggs
What is the process of development of female gametes or ova or egg that takes place in ovaries? Oogenesis
What is the division of cytoplasm called? Cytokinesis
What is the type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only? Asexual Reproduction
How many viable eggs are produced in meiosis? 1
How many viable sperm cells are produced during meiosis? 4
Does DNA have to replicate? Yes
What is the form of cell division that creates gametes, or sex cells? Meiosis
What is the phase in which DNA is copied in preparation for mitosis; cell rests while preparing for meiosis or mitosis? Interphase
What pulls the chromatids apart during cell division and makes sure that each new cell has one chromatid from each pair? Kinetochore Fibers
What is the male reproductive cell called? Sperm
What is the production of sperm cells in the male testes called? Spermatogenesis
What are somatic cells? Body Cells
What is the mode of reproduction involving the fusion of an egg and a sperm to form a zygote? Sexual Reproduction
What is the initial stage of mitosis and of the mitotic division of meiosis characterized by the condensation of chromosomes consisting of two chromatids, disappearance of the nucleolus and nuclear membrane, and formation of mitotic spindle? Prophase
What is the final stage of mitosis and of the second division of meiosis in which the spindle disappears and the nucleus reforms around each set of chromosomes? Telophase
What is the central plane of the spindle in a dividing cell, to which chromosomes migrate during the metaphase of mitosis or meiosis? Equator
What is the male reproductive organ called? Testes
What allows matching-up of homologous pairs prior to their segregation, and possible chromosomal crossover between them? Synapse
What is it called when an organism has less than the normal amount of chromosomes? Monosomy
What is the exchange of genes between two chromosomes, resulting in non-identical chromatids that comprise the genetic material of gametes? "Crossing Over"
What is the stage of cell division in which the duplicated chromosomes become aligned along the center of the cell, called the equatorial plate? Metaphase
What is the region of the chromosome to which the spindle fiber is attached during cell division? Centromere
What is the indentation of the cell's surface that occurs during telophase called? Cleavage Furrow
What are the female reproductive organs? Ovaries
What is the group of four haploid cells formed by meiotic division of one mother cell? Tetrad
What is it called when an organism has more chromosomes that normal? Trisomy
What is it called when an individual has two of the same allele, whether dominant or recessive (purebred)? Homozygous
What is the set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a particular trait? Genotype
What is the process of combining an egg with a sperm called? Fertilization
What are the female chromosomes? XX
What is the study of heredity, or how the characteristics of living things are transmitted from one generation to the next? Genetics
What is it called when an offspring results from combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction? Hybrid
Who discovered the basic principles of heredity? Gregor Mendel
What is the number, size, and shape of chromosomes in an organism called? Karyotype
What causes genetic problems? Genetic disorders can be caused by a mutation in one gene (monogenic disorder), by mutations in multiple genes (multifactorial inheritance disorder), by a combination of gene mutations and environmental factors, or by damage to chromosomes.
What is it called when a cell, a nucleus, or an individual organism carries different or non-identical alleles for a particular trait? Heterozygous
What is the set of observable characteristics of an individual? Phenotype
What is it called when a flower pollinates itself? Self pollination
What are the male chromosomes? XY
What is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, when the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents? Heredity
What is it called when an organisms homozygous for every trait? Purebred
What is the probability of having a girl? 50%
What is the probability of having a boy? 50%
What is the probability of having twins? 40%
How many chromosomes are in the human body? 46 or 23 pairs
What is an allele or a gene that is expressed in an organism's phenotype, masking the effect of the recessive allele or gene when present? Dominant
What is an allele or a gene that is expressed in an organism's phenotype, that is masked by the effect of the dominant allele or gene when present? Recessive
What is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele? Incomplete Dominance
What is it called when a plant is pollinated by another plant? Cross Pollination
What is it called when both alleles are dominant? Pure Dominant
What is it called when both alleles are recessive? Pure Recessive
What is the genetic disorder in which an organism has an extra chromosome? Down Syndrome
What is it called when all of the offspring of two parents have one dominant and one recessive allele? Monohybrid
What is it called when a cell or nucleus contains two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent? Diploid
What is it called when a cell or nucleus has a single set of unpaired chromosomes? Haploid
What is a hybrid that is heterozygous for alleles of two different genes? Dihybrid
What is the messenger carrying instructions from the DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins? RNA or ribonucleic acid
What is the carrier of genetic information? DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid
What is a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction? Enzymes or protein
What is the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes Mutation
What is it called when extra DNA or RNA is added to a section of genetic material? Insertion
What is it called when necessary DNA or RNA is removed from a section of genetic material? Deletion
What is the disorder of the blood caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein within the red blood cells)? Sickle Cell
What is it called when a mutation affects only one or very few nucleotides in a gene sequence? Point Mutation
What is the enzyme that separates double-stranded DNA into single strands allowing each strand to be copied? Helicase
What enzyme usually works in pairs to copy one molecule of double-stranded DNA into two new double stranded DNA molecules? Polymerase
What is the shape of DNA? Looks like a twisted latter. Double Helix
What is a two-carbon nitrogen ring such as adenine called? Purine
What is a one-carbon nitrogen ring such as thymine called? Pyramidine
Who discovered the structure of DNA? Watson/Crick
What is the purine nitrogen base that pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA? Adenine
What is the pyrimidine nitrogen base that pairs with guanine? Cytosine
What is the pyrimidine base that pairs with adenine in DNA and is replaced by uracil in RNA? Thymine
What is the purine nitrogen base that pairs with cytosine? Guanine
What is the pyrimidine base that pairs with adenine in RNA and is replaced by thymine in DNA? Uracil
What is it called when there are two strands of DNA or RNA that match up with each individual base's pair? Complementary Strand
Created by: Chrysler9268