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Disease Detectives

Science Olymiad2009-2010

Cluster an aggregation of cases over a particular period closely grouped in time and space, regardless of whether the number is more than the expected number
Outbreak more cases of a particular disease than expected in a given area or among a specialized group of people over a particular period of time
Epidemic large numbers of people over a wide geographical area affected
Pandemic an epidemic occurring over several countries or continents and affected a large proportion of the population
Surveillance The systematic and ongoing collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data.
Plague A serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas.
Epidemiological Triad Agent/host/Enviornment
Ecological studies comparisons of geographical locations
Cross sectional study a survey "snapshot in time"
Case-control Compare pople with and without disease to find common exposure
Cohort compare people with and without exposures to see what happens to each
Randomized controlled trial human experiment
Odds Ratio used in case-control study, ad/bc
Relative Risk used in cohort study, (a/(a+b))/(c/(c+d))
Epi-Curve histogram that shows the course of an outbreak by plotting the number of cases of a condition according to the time of onset.
Point Source exposed to the same exposure over a limited, well define period of time. The shape of the curve commonly rises rapidly and contains a definite peak, followed by a gradual decline.
Continuous common source exposure to the source is prolonged over an extended period of time and may occur over more than one incubation period.
Propagated (progressive source) case of disease serves later as a source of infection for subsequent cases and those subsequent cases, in turn, serve as sources for later cases. The shape of this curve usually contains a series of successively larger peaks,
Chain of infection Agent-reservoir-portal of exit-mode of transmission-portal of entry-susceptible host
Agent A microbial organism with the ability to cause disease
Reservoir A place where agents can thrive and reproduce
Portal of Exit A place of exit providing a way for an agent to leave the reservoir
Mode of Transmission Method of transfer by which the organism moves or is carried from one place to another.
Portal of Entry An opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host.
Susceptible Host A person who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body, multiplying, and resulting in infection.
Characteristics of Agents Infectivity,Pathogenicity, Virulence
Infectivity capacity to cause infection in a susceptible host
Virulence severity of disease that the agent causes to host
Pathogenicity capacity to cause disease in a host
Direct transmission immediate transfer of agent from a reservoir to a susceptible host by direct contact or droplet spread. kissing, inhalation, Sexual contact
Indirect transmission agent is carried from reservoir to a susceptible host by suspended air particles, vectors, or vehicles
Vector animate intermediary- misquitos, fleas, flies
Formite/vehicles inanimate intermediary-comb, doorknob
Mechanical transmission no multiplication or change of the agent within the vector
Biological transmission when the agent undergoes changes within the vector, and the vector serves as both an intermediate host and a mode of transmission
Prevention Primary-avoid initial exposure to prevent process form starting Secondary-when disease has just begun-screening and instituting treatment-to prevent progression Tertiary-during symptomatic stage-arrest, slow, or reverse the progression of disease
1 Prepare for Field Work
2 Establish the Existence of an Outbreak
3 Verify the Diagnosis
4 Define and Identify Cases
5 Describe and Orient the Data in Terms of Person, Place, and Time
6 Develop Hypotheses
7 Evaluate Hypotheses
8 Refine Hypotheses and Carry Out Additional Studies
9 Implement Control and Prevention Measures
10 Communicate Findings
epidemiology the study of incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population
Incidence the number of new cases arising in a given period of time in a specified group of people (population).
Incidence Rate All cases/total population
Created by: ironchef48