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Science Vocabulary13

Science Words To Learn

Complimentary either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA.
Punctuation Rapid or sudden speciation, as suggested by the theory of punctuated equilibrium.
Protein synthesis The creation of proteins by cells that uses DNA, RNA and various enzymes
Transcription is the first step of DNA based gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Translation is a step in protein biosynthesis wherein the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
Codon a sequence of three nucleotides which together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.
Anticodon a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.
Splice join or connect (a rope or ropes) by interweaving the strands.
Exons a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule containing information coding for a protein or peptide sequence.
Polypeptide a linear organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino-acid residues bonded together in a chain, forming part of (or the whole of) a protein molecule.
Restriction enzyme an enzyme produced chiefly by certain bacteria, having the property of cleaving DNA molecules at or near a specific sequence of bases.
Karyotyping the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
Transduction the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
Cloning to make an organism or cell, or group of organisms or cells, produced asexually from one ancestor or stock, to which they are genetically identical.
Genetic engineering the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.
Gene mutation a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most people.
Chromosomal mutation any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism
Pedigree chart that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next.
Amniocentesis the sampling of amniotic fluid using a hollow needle inserted into the uterus, to screen for developmental abnormalities in a fetus.
Recombinant DNA DNA that has been formed artificially by combining constituents from different organisms.
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