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1C Elevate Science

Topic 1 Living Things in the Biosphere Lesson 3 Viruses/Bacteria/Protists/Fungi

QuestionAnswer
What Domain are protists in? The Eukarya Domain
Explain the Eukarya Domain. they are more simple than plants, animals and fungi
Explain Archaea and Bacteria. they are less complex than protists; unicellular; no nucleus
Where do Archaea live? They live in extreme conditions. Hot springs, salty water, deep underground
Complete the statement... Some bacteria are ___, some are___ and some can be ___ autotrophs, heterotrophs, decomposers
Why aren't viruses in any domain? they are not considered living
What is a virus? a tiny, nonliving partical that enters a cell and reproduces
Viruses lack most characteristics of life. Explain cannot reproduce on its own; do not use food for energy or to grow; do not respond to its surroundings
What are common shapes of viruses? round; thread, brick; bullet; robot-like
What are they measured in? measures in units called nanometers ( 1 billionth of a meter)
What are viruses typically named after? named after a disease they cause or where they were discovered
Explain reproduction in viruses. contain genetic material with a protein coating; attaches itself to a host cell; enters/injects genetic material into the host cell; genetic material takes over the host cell - makes copies of itself; host cell bursts open, releasing many new viruses,
What is a host cell? an organism that provides a source of energy or a suitable environment for a virus to live
How are vaccines related to viruses? Vaccines are weakened or killed viruses that are introduced to the body, to produce chemicals that will destroy that pathogen.
Describe/Explain bacteria. they make up the majority of organisms on earth; they are very small; there are 3 shapes.
What are the three shapes of bacteria? Cocci (ball); Bacilli (rod-like); Spirilla (spiral)
What does infectious bacteria do? they release toxins that damage surrounding cells
Describe the bacteria cell structure. unicellular; Prokaryote, no nucleus; have a cell wall, have a cell membrane; move with a flagella
What is the function of the cell wall? it prevents the cell from drying out
What is the function of the cell membrane? it controls what enters and exits the cell
How does a flagella help with movement? it is like a "whip" to propel the bacteria to move around
How do bacteria obtain food? make food from sunlight; make food from chemicals; absorb food through cell walls; use energy from food to make toxins
Where can bacteria NOT survive? cannot survive in harsh conditions
What may happen to bacteria when conditions for survival improve? some may grow a thick shell called an endospore, which can grow back into a cell, when conditions improve
How do bacteria reproduce? they reproduce asexually by binary fission
What is conjugation? pass genetic information to a neighboring cell; can create resistance (antibiotic resistance)
What are protists? they are Eukaryotic- not plants, animals or fungi
Where do protists live? they live in moist environments; around humans
What type of protists are harmful? some are parasites (Giardia; Plasmodium)
How do Animal-like Protists obtain their food? they are heterotrophs
Animal-like Protists are unicellular, multicellular or both? they are unicellular
How do Animal-like Protists move? they are free swimming
How do Animal-like Protists reproduce? they use asexual and sexual reproduction
Name and describe 2 examples of Animal-like Protists. Amoebas- surround and trap food particles; Giardia- a common parasite that has 8 flagella
How do Plant-like Protists obtain their food? they are autotrophs; some are also heterotrophs
Plant-like Protists are unicellular, multicellular or both? they are unicellular or multicellular
How do Plant-like Protists move? they are free swimming or attached
How do Plant-like Protists reproduce? they reproduce asexually and sexually
Name and describe 2 examples of Plant-like Protists. red Algae- seaweed people eat, known as Nori; Dinoflagellates- glow in the dark
How do Fungi-like Protists obtain their food? they are heterotrophs
Fungi-like Protists are unicellular, multicellular or both? unicellular, but often live in colonies
How do Fungi-like Protists move? they move during some part of the life cycle
How do Fungi-like Protists reproduce? they reproduce asexually
Name and describe 2 examples of Fungi-like Protists. slime molds- brightly colored, grow in garden beds; water molds- attack plants, such as crops
Fungi are... Eukaryotic cells with cell walls
Fungi are heterotrophs- How do they feed? they feed by absorbing food through the cell wall
What is Hyphae? it is thread-like tubes that allow fungi to spread
Some fungi are... decomposers and some are parasites
How do fruiting bodies, like the mushrooms we eat, reproduce? they release spores that are carried to a new location and grow into new fungal colonies
How do fungi reproduce sexually? through hyphae
What are some benefits to fungi? nutritious foods, medicines, dyes and perfumes, baking bread and beverages
What are some harmful affects of fungi? they can cause rashes and disease infections
Created by: carlsond