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Biology Final

QuestionAnswer
Abdomen Rearmost portion of an insect's body
Allele Any of the different forms of a particular gene
Alveolus One of the microscopic air sacs of the lungs in which gas exchange takes place
Amoeba Sarcodine that uses pseudopods for locomotion and for ingesting food particles
Anuran Frog or toad
Arachnid Arthropod with two main body regions and eight legs
Arctic Tundra Treeless northern biome that has long, harsh winters and permafrost
Base Pairing Process in which only on type of base will fit another to form a base pair
Bony Fish Fish whose skeleton is made either partially or wholly of bone
Cartilaginous Fish Fish whose skeleton is made of cartilage rather than bone
Caudal Fin Tail fin of fish
Central Nervous System Portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
Chalaza Dense, twisted cord that supports the yolk of a bird egg and keeps the yolk upright
Codominance Form of inheritance in which two alleles for a trait are equally expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous individual
Codon Consecutive sequence of 3 mRNA nucleotides that translates into a specific amino acid
Coelenterate Aquatic invertebrate that has a saclike body, a central digestive cavity with a single opening, and tentacles containing cnidocytes
Complete Metamorphis Process in which an insect metamorphis from a larva into a pupa and then into an adult
Cornea Transparent structure that replaces the sclera at the front of the eye
Cytoplasm Jellylike fluid medium of the cell, containing organelles and numerous dissolved chemicals
Charles Darwin British naturalist who wrote The Origin of Species and The Descent of Man and popularized evolution
Differentiation Process in which unspecialized cells become specialized
DNA Chemical found in the nucleus, that stores the genetic information needed for cellular function; Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Double Helix Double-spiral structure
Echinoderm Spiny-skinned invertebrate with a water vascular system
Epidermis Outer layer that provides covering and protection to plant structures
Excretory System Body system that excretes waste material from the body
Femur Thigh bone
Fermentation Process used by microorganisms to break down cellulose
Genotype Actual combination of alleles inherited for a particular trait
Genus Level of classification between family and species
Geological Column Simple-to-complex sequence of fossils used by evolutionists to present the fossil record as a straight forward evolutionary process
Gill Special organ that allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass between the water and the blood of a fish or other aquatic animal
Gizzard Muscular rear portion of a bird's stomach that has horny plates to grind food
Haploid Containing only half the normal number of chromosomes for a particular organism
William Harvey English physiologist known for his study of blood circulation
Head Front portion of an insect's body
Herbivore Consumer that feeds on plants
Hypothesis Tentative answer to a scientific problem
Immunity Condition of resistance to a pathogen in which the pathogen will be destroyed before symptoms of infection develop
Intron Noncoding DNA sequence within a gene that is spliced out of the pre mRNA
Invertebrate An animal without a backbone
Large Intestine Tubelike organ that prepares undigested food for expulsion from the body
Law of Dominance Law stating that dominant traits appear in the offspring even if an allele for a different trait is also present
Law of Segregation Law stating that alleles for each trait separate randomly during the formation of gametes
Linkage Situation in which genes do not obey the law of independent assortment because they are located close to each other on the same chromosome
Meiosis A special type of cell division in which a diploid germ cell division in which a diploid germ cell divides into four haploid cells
Melatonin Pineal hormone that triggers sleepiness
Gregor Mendel 19th century Austrian monk who founded the modern science of genetics
Mitochondrion Organelle that serves as the power plant of a cell
Mollusk Any of the soft-bodied invertebrates distinguished by a muscular foot, a visceral hump, and a mantle
Multiple Allele Inheritance Form of inheritance in which a single gene has more than two possible alleles
Mutation Error in an organism's genetic material caused by a small, random change in the DNA
Nucleus "Control Center" of a cell, which stores DNA
Orthoptera Order of insects that undergo incomplete metamorphosis and hold their wings straight back along their body when not in flight
Osmosis One-way diffusion through a semipermeable membrane
Pleiotropy Form of inheritance in which a single gene influences several seemingly unrelated traits
Polygenic Inheritance Form of inheritance in which a single trait is controlled by multiple genes
Pulmonary Vein Either of two pairs of blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart
Quadriceps Femoris Group of four muscles in the front of the thigh that straighten the leg at the knee
Recombination Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material meiosis
Replication Process in which a cell makes a copy of its DNA
Ribosome Cell structure that performs translation to manufacture proteins based on RNA "blueprints" from the nucleus
RNA Nucleic acid that is similar to DNA but contains ribose instead of deoxyribose
Segmented Worm Invertebrate with a cylindrical body divided into many consecutive ringlike segments; Annelid
Snake Legless reptile with a long, cylindrical body covered with dry scales
Stamen Pollen-producing organ within a flower
Swim Bladder Hollow, gas filled chamber that allows a fish to adjust its buoyancy
Thorax Middle portion of an insect's body
Transcription Process in which a cell makes an mRNA copy of a particular gene
Virus Pathogen that is a molecule of a genetic material enclosed in a geometric protein capsid
Xylem Plant vascular tissue that transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the leaves
What are the four types of bases that can make up the rungs of a DNA molecule? Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, Thymine
What is the base that is only in RNA? Uracil
Created by: Muddee