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MAAP Review L.8.2

Reproduction and Heredity

This is an inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival. adaptation
This bonds to thymine (T) in DNA. adenine
This is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, drugs and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. agriculture
This is an alternative form of a gene. allele
This is a molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. They are the building blocks of protein. amino acids
This is the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes separate to the opposite ends of the cell. anaphase
This is the process of intentionally interfering with the breeding process to encourage certain traits over others. artificial selection
This is a type of reproduction where one organism divides into two and there is no exchange of genetic information. asexual
This is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life. biotechnology
This is a type of asexual reproduction where an offspring grows out of the body of the parent. budding
This is a type of asexual reproduction where an offspring grows out of the body of the parent. cell
The series of events in a eukaryotic cell that involve growth, replication and division. cell cycle
These are barrel shaped microtubules in most animal cells, that organize the spindles during cell division. centrioles
This is the structure in the cell nucleus that houses a cell's genetic information. chromosome
This is the process in which two chromosomes exchange DNA during prophase of meiosis. crossing over
This is the last part of the cell cycle. This is process in which the cytoplasm is divided between the two new daughter cells. cytokinesis
This bonds to guanine (G) in DNA. cytosine
This is an organism or cell with two sets of chromosomes. diploid
This holds an organisms hereditary information. DNA
This is an observable trait of an organism that can mask the recessive trait. dominant
This is a haploid cell with half the reproductive information from the parent. gamete
This is a segment of DNA on the chromosome that is coded for a particular trait. gene
This is one result of gamete formation through meiosis and fertilization during sexual reproduction that promotes biodiversity within a species. genetic variation
This is the science of genes, heredity and variation of organisms. genetics
The genetic makeup of an organism. genotype
This is a cell or organism having half of the diploid chromosome number, haploid
This is the process of mixing different species or varieties of organisms. hybridization
This is one of Mendel's principles that govern the process of genetic inheritance. It states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes (sex cells). This means that traits are passed to offspring independently of one another. Independent Assortment
This is Mendel's first law. For each inherited trait, there are at least one pair of alleles. This states that during gamete formation each member of an allelic pair separates from the other member to form the genetic make-up of a gamete (sex cell). Law of Segregation
This is a process where a parent cell divides into four sex cells with half the chromosomes. meiosis
This scientist is known as the Father of Genetics, because of his work with pea plants. Mendel
This is the stage of mitosis where chromosomes align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells. metaphase
The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell. MRNA mitosis
This is a random error/change in the DNA sequence. These may be inherited or occur in cells during the lifetime of the organism. This is a random error/change in the DNA sequence. These may be inherited or occur in cells during the lifetime of the organism.
This is the repeating structural unit that forms RNA and DNA. neucleotide
The structure that houses the cells genetic information. nucleus
These are the descendants of the parent generation. offspring
This is the generation that produces the offspring. parent
The physical expression of genes. phenotype
This is the first stage of nuclear cell division in which centrioles move to opposite ends of the cells and chromosomes, spindle fibers, and an aster become visible prophase
This is a diagram that shows the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross. punnett square
This is a form of a gene that is hidden by another, dominant, form of the same gene. recessive allele
This is the copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA. replication
This organelle synthesizes proteins. ribosomes
This is a type of reproduction where there is a exchange of genetic information in order to create new individuals. sexual
This is the final phase of nuclear cell division during which a nuclear envelope forms around each new set of chromosomes. telophase
This bonds to adenine (A) in DNA. thymine
Literally, one-celled. unicellular
This is the nitrogenous base only found in RNA. uracil
inherited two identical genes (purebred) homozygous
inherited two different alleles (hybrid) heterozygous
Created by: WheelerScience