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Ch 52

ecology the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment
biological hierarchy - organismal ecology - population ecology - community ecology - ecosystem ecology - landscape ecology - global ecology
organismal ecology includes the subdisciplines of physiological, evolutionary, and behavioral ecology, is concerned with how an organism's structure, physiology, and behavior meet the challenges posed by its environment
population ecology analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes through time
community ecology examines how interactions between species, such as predation and competition, affect community structure and organization
ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the environment
landscape ecology focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems
global ecology examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere
climate the long term prevailing weather conditions in a given area
microclimate very fine, localized patterns in climatic conditions
abiotic nonliving
biotic living factors
climate change a directional change to the global climate that lasts three decades or more
climograph a plot of the annual mean temperature and precipitation in a particular region
ecotone may be wide or narrow
canopy the low-tree layer, the shrub understory, the ground layer of herbaceous plants, the forest floor (little layer), and the root layer
disturbance an event such as a storm, fire, or human activity that changes a community, removing organisms from it and altering resource availability
Types of Biomes - Tropical Forest - Desert - Savanna - Chaparral - Temperate Grassland - Northern Coniferous Forest - Temperate Broadleaf Forest - Tundra
photic zone there is sufficient light for photosynthesis
aphotic zone region where little light penetrates
pelagic zone photic and aphotic zones together
abyssal zone the part of the ocean 2,000-6,000 m below the surface
Types of Aquatic Biomes - Lakes - Wetlands - streams and rivers - estuaries - intertidal - oceanic pelagic zone - coral reefs - marine benthic zone
dispersal the movement of individuals or gametes away from their area or origin or from centers of high population density
Created by: savepeople
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